is the idea that learners must individually discover and transform complex information if they are to make it their ownwhat is the essence of constructivist theories of learning1. students are engaged with a problem they could
resolve with some assistance.
Cognitive apprenticeship. (This means the learner
gradually acquires expertise after interacting with
someone more skilled).
). This involves
engaging students in realistic, complex tasks made
possible by proper structured guidance).
The social nature of learning. (This implies work in
groups). Identify the four key principles/ concepts drawn from Vygotsky’s theories, which underlie constructivist thought. ONEDU PSY CH. 5 SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder Nowthe sweet spot
something they can learn with helpWhat is the proximal zone of development and its basic implication for teachers? because students will more easily discover and comprehend difficult concepts if they talk with eachotherwhy is cooperative learning(peer interaction) an important part of the constructivist approach to teaching? information is learned by the student with little help from teachers they are encouraged to learn from their own principles and conceptswhat is discovery learning? Discover on own and form info to make it their ownwhat do constructivist theories of learning expect of learners? (How are learners expected to acquire knowledge or skills? Keep in mind the difference between ” top down and bottom up processing)teachers play a more active role in guided discovery learning(giving clues, structuring portions of an activity, or providing outlines) Advantages are it arouses curiosity and motivates students , it teaches problem solving skills and critical thinking skills. the disadvantage is it can lead to errors and waste time. What is the difference between pure discovery learning and guided discovery learning (what are the advantages and disadvantageshave students generate their own questions about the material they are reading. how might a teacher utilize scaffolding ( a form of mediated learning) in his/her class? models the behaviors he/she wants students to learn and let them repeat the behavior on their ownHow should teachers utilize ” scaffolding”(a form of mediated learning) in his/her class? they should model questions students might ask as they read , then students will ask questions to each otherHow should teachers apply the principles of reciprocal teaching? they would work in small teams and work together to help one another plan, draft, revise, edit, and publish compositions.
students work together insmall groups, teachers pose problems and join students in asking questions about strategies when students feel struckHow would students work in the constructive approach to writing, constructivist approach in mathematics or science instruction? Student Teams-Achievement Divisons. Performance level, gender, ethnicity. The teacher presents a lesson. students work in group to master the lesson then take a quizwhat does ” STAD” stand for and which of the ” three purposes” of cooperative learning is applied? How does STAD work? six member teams are assigned to work on academic material that has been broken down into sections. What is required of group members in ” Jigsaw” or Jigsaw II? group study methods and project based learning or active learningWhat are the ” two broad categories of cooperative learning methods upon which research has been conducted? group study methodsare primarily used when students work together to help one another master a relatively well-defined body of information or skills. active learning or project based learninginvolves students working in groups to create a report, experiment, mural or other productsome kind of recognition or small reward must be provided to groups that do well, so that group members can see that it is in their interest to help their group mates learn. Second, there must be individual accountability. that is the success of the group must depend on the individual learning of all group members, not on a single group productBased on research findings, what are the ” two essential conditions” that cooperative learning strategies should include in order to assure it is most effective in promoting learning? one study found that students using a variety of cooperative learning methods in almost all subjects for a two-year period achieved significantly better than did students in traditionally organized schools. What did the research by Stevens & Slavin (1995a) find in their comparison of schools, some of which used cooperative learning methods(for two years) as opposed to traditionally organized schools? Identify problem define goals and represent the problem explore possible strategies antipate outcomes look back and learnidentify problem solving through IDEALincubation is setting aside time to reflect on problems. creative problem solving in it its important to remember to avoid rushing the solution instead incubate several alternative solutions before choosing a course of action. what is the relationship between ” incubation” and creative problem solving ? many students would rush to multiply 45 minutes by 3. instead of speed they should value ingenuity and careful thoughtwhat has research found about ” time for incubation”? and how should teachers encourage (motivate students) so that they may make best use of incubation? suspension of judgement considers all possibilities . appropriate climates is a easy going relaxed environmentHow does the suspension of judgement and appropriate climates facilitate creative problem solving? And what is considered an ” appropriate climate”? top downmeans that students begin with complex problems to solve and then work out or discover (with your guidance) the basic skills requiredbottom upapproach to teaching the multiplication of two-digit numbers by one digit numbers is to teach students a step by step procedure to get the right answer
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