Society is build by social structures; main structures are social stratification and social conflict. Social stratification refers to condition in which individuals are arranged in social classes in a group. In sociology, anthropology and other social sciences field it is defined as hierarchical arrangement of individuals into divisions of wealth and power within a given society whereby members are ranked into superior and inferior groups.
Social stratification also describes the division of society into distinct and unequal social classes. Social conflict is defined as an open struggle over property, income and power. Social conflicts arise when unequal wealth, resources, power and authority within or between social groups are present. Social conflict is a significant factor of social power. Social conflict can be categorized into position conflict, conflict of interests and conflicts over roles.
The research evaluation discusses how society has been developed through the social structures. Social stratification and social conflict has played a significant role in the past, present and future society. The article discusses how social stratification and social conflict has influenced the society. Assessment of these social structures has been done by presenting and interpreting social conflict and social stratification in relation to three major books excerpt. Social Stratification and social Conflict According to Ralf Dahrendorf classes arise from conflict groups due to structure of authority of an imperative coordinated association are in conflicts.
Conflict may destruct social stability or breakdown the social control. Social conflict is a significant contributor of social system integration that brings change. Social conflicts serves positively by removing dissociation elements in societal relationship by re-establishing unity though not all conflicts are positively functional. Some conflicts such as clash between interests and values and tensions prevent accommodation and habitual relations from progressive creativity. Conflict is perceived from Utopian point of view as a role allocation, socialization and mobility process that promote social stability (Dahrendorf 6: 206-207).
Continued conflicts group are significant in giving directions to social change. Societies are historical creatures which require motive force such as conflict to influence historical change and development. Conflicts are present in social life and essential factor for creativity, innovation and development. Intensity and violence are variables of social class conflict that influences both social and political change.
The group members strive to upset structure of authority which results to own social changes by authority structure. Political conditions become more relevant whereby concerned individuals issues are recognized (Dahrendorf 6: 208-213). The pluralism versus superimposition as a context and type of conflict is perceived as strict relation of group conflict to particular associations. Pluralism superimposition has two distinct dimensions. First dimension is related to separation of class conflict type in different associations such as state, church and industry. The ruling and subject of each association are largely separated.
Dahrendorf argues that for a two class solution is achieved only if there is a clear line drawn between the subject s and rulers. Class conflicts are superimposed whereby opponents meet with different titles but similar relations in another association thus, individuals of conflicting groups of different association are similar. In a given society there are three categories of social conflicts namely class type conflicts, conflict between town and country and conflict between protestant and catholic. Such conflicts cut across the society and it is evident that the pluralism and dissociation are unlikely to be experienced (Dahrendorf 6: 213-214). Occupation rewards such as income, job security and social security reveals the probability of those in position to enjoy economic status. Despite the high income due to political authority in totalitarian countries, the high proportion of insecurity lowers economic status of groups in dominion.
The means of production were socialized in the revolutions of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Capitalism remains intact throughout the process of industrialization in the West though the ownership and control are separated by distinct emergence of class. Capitalism class may nonetheless be weakened by the structural changes of post industrialization characterized by emergence of service economy, technical expertise, educational and vocational training as new aspects of property. Max Webber suggests that situations of classes emerge from social action. Social actions that directly determine class situations of worker and entrepreneur are labor force, commodities and capital. However, capitalism presumes specific kind of social action which protects possession of goods and power of an individual (Weber, 1978).
The struggle of class conflict has progressively shifted from credit towards competitive struggle on commodity market and wage disputes in labor markets. Class struggles continued to extend of social status where artisans and peasants were struggling with debt bondage. Debt bondage furthered struggles of wealth in commercial sectors. Those who did not own property protested against monopolies and prices of good in markets, the conflict arise due to fight for access to market. The market situation and conflict were bitter between those who directly and actually participated as opponents in market struggles.
Robert Michel suggests that the nature in which the leader use press to secure dominion varies one country to another according to social values. Where the organizational party are still weak, leaders influence are direct and personal. In some countries such as Germany faith of masses and authority is robust not to require sustainance of few prestigious people. German journalists are identified with all editorial staff and entire party resulting to their voices appealing to the public. This gives rise to moral and legal impunity thus victim of aggression is placed on inferiority position. Obliteration of German journalism personality is in favor of institution in connection to socialist press of the country.
In all the cases press remains in hands of leaders and are never controlled by ranks and files. German social democracy resulted to an exceptional stable structure which when compared to other nation social structures have attained and achieved extreme developments. Where struggle is present between leaders and masses victory is achieved within the group that has unity. German social democracy of parliamentary group is dominated by concerns of internal structure where principle of subordination is applied. No individual has a right of independent action since the majority of parliamentary group decide action for its members.
Parliamentarians vote as single entities and not on mere basis of distinct social bearings which each may decide on individual conception. It is evident that German democratic society reveals that the opinion of liberty no longer exist where common action is on demand and political force is penetrated. Preventive measures failed to be effective, this occurred when minority and majority conflict is not present but the conflict is between a group and single individual of parliament who possesses certain sections of party with full support of subordinates. The occurrence of conflicts in such circumstances, deputy is assured victory despite isolation. The electors follows with great compliance of oscillation and evolution of the parliamentary representatives, this is also done in constituencies where socialists voters are in dominion.
The former member of socialist associations remains faithful to their leaders despite the resignation, they continue as electors by supporting ex-socialists. Change occurred when Ferri of Italy revealed new truth of collective change of political opinion and change in entire region. The region became converted through principle of class cooperation and participation in activities of ministry (Michels 6: 184-187). It is only right that the appeal of electors to be responsible of their conduct is acknowledged by electorate body where political mandates must be based on genuine democratic principles. It is evident that constituencies inspired by socialist sentiments have better democratic and political actions. More social conflicts arose due to struggle between leaders and masses and struggle between leaders themselves.
Conclusion In conclusion, the main concern of social conflict is regulation. Conflict can be managed if both parties are in recognition of necessity and reality of conflict situation and justification must be made. The other effective way of regulating occurrence of conflicts is by organizing interests of parties involved with conflicts. Lastly the opposing groups must agree on formal rules that provide relationship framework. From the article it is evident that social conflict and social stratification differs from one country to another due to nations social values. Despite the differences, social stratification and social conflict make up the society whereby society is influenced by social status and politics.