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Review of related literature

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Review of Related Literature Pandan leaves come from the Pandanus amaryllifolius shrub, also known as the dwarf or fragrant screw pine. This sprawling perennial plant is native to Southeast Asia and has been introduced in other tropical regions. It produces spirally arranged leaves about 1 to 1 1/2 incheswide and up to 18 inches in length. This shrubby perennial plant has fan shaped clusters of long, narrow leaves.  Pandan leaves also contain compounds that repel some species of cockroachesand are a traditional insect repellent. Pandan leaves contain a number of essential oils and chemicals that cockroaches findunpleasant. Terpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons make up between 6 and 42 percent of theoils in these leaves, according to the National University of Singapore researchers. Pandan leavescontain substances repellent to vermins, they actually discourage these insects at a lower rate than other plants from the same geographical region. Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of  plants, particularly conifers,  though also by some insects such as termites or swallowtail butterflies, which emit terpenes from their osmeterium. They are often strong smelling and thusmay have had a protective function. Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. Pandan leaves also contain volatile oil, an essential oil found in plants, whisch helps torepel vermins. One of the reasons why we did this study is to reduce the use of deet. DEET as we allknows a very effective mosquito repellent but this is what we are trying to avoid. It is highlyconcentrated toxic that could make us hard to breath, have cough, minimal alertness, seizures, trouble stomach and vomiting. If you accidentally sprayed DEET into your eyes, mouth andnose, you can feel burning sensation and irritation. But if you burnt your eye, you must go for medication. DEET is very hazardous for children. Proper care should be taken once you areusing DEET. It is advisable to use a natural based mosquito repellent than coming from syntheticchemicals. Many people’s response to fears about West Nile Virus (WNV) and the normalannoyance of mosquito bites is to slather on the insect repellent,  especially on their children. The most common choice is a DEET based repellent.  A study released last summer showed someDEET based products to be the most effective, in that they lasted longer than other products. ButDEET based repellents aren’t just hazardous to mosquitoes. From a human health point of view, when mosquito bites are more of a nuisance than a serious health threat, choosing a botanical based repellent makes more sense. Nepeta cataria Nepetalactone is a mosquito and fly repellent.  Oil isolated from catnip by steam distillation is a repellent against insects, in particular mosquitoes, cockroaches and termites. Research suggests that,  in vitro, distilled nepetalactone repels mosquitoes ten times more effectively than DEET, the active ingredient in most insect repellents, but that it is not as effective a repellent when used on the skin.

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