Nowadays, there are hundreds of conflicts which are in a frozen state all around the world. Most of these conflicts based on ethnic separatism which greatly complicates the task of solving them, headed by the whole nationality. The former Soviet Union alone has 4 frozen conflicts. Some political analysts believe, that the armed conflicts in the region of the Black Sea and South Caucasus emerged due to the disintegration of the Soviet Union, as well as not fully thought out the division of the lands between the new states.
As evidenced of it the presence there is not one or just two conflicts in the former Soviet Union, but as many as 4. The modern world’s attention is focused on the open conflicts and military showdowns, but we should not forget about the frozen conflicts, which are fraught with the danger of instantly break the ” frozen” state and move into a phase blitzkrieg side. Frozen conflicts of the Black Sea and South Caucasus affect countries such as South Ossetia, North Ossetia, Ingushetia and Georgia.
Another centre of the conflict is a clash of interests of Armenia and Azerbaijan in Nagorno-Karabakh, which is geographically located in Azerbaijan, but the majority of its population are Armenians. But we shouldn`t talk about the lack of attention of the world community and political institutions to the frozen conflicts in these regions. Since one of the main functions of the UN Security Council is the maintenance and preservation of the peace, of course the UN has made and is making peacekeeping measures in the past.
UN adopted 4 resolutions to stop illegal occupation of the territory of Azerbaijan: April 30, 1993 Adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 822, which requires ” an immediate withdrawal of all occupying forces from Kelbajar district and other recently occupied areas of Azerbaijan. ” July 29, 1993 – Adoption of the UN Security Council Resolution 853, ” which requires the immediate, complete and unconditional withdrawal of the occupying forces from the district of Agdam and all other recently occupied areas of the Republic of Azerbaijan. October 14, 1993 – UN Security Council passed Resolution 874, calling on the parties ” to refrain from any hostile acts and from any interference or intervention which would lead to escalation of the conflict and undermine peace and security in the region. ” November 11, 1993 – UN Security Council adopted Resolution 884, which requires ” an immediate cessation of hostilities and hostile acts, unilateral withdrawal of occupying forces from the Zangelan district and the city Horadiz and withdrawal of occupying forces from other recently occupied areas of the Republic of Azerbaijan. June 12, 1995 the EU Council adopted a project of ” common position” on the Caucasus. In this document, among other things, noted that the Union should help Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan to overcome the difficult period of transition to democracy, based on a market economy. Thus, we have no rights to say that the European Union and the world community did not take part in the settlement of the conflicts peacefully.
However, putting on hold military action, but without reaching consensus in resolving disputes or frozen conflicts, not only inhibits geopolitical development of the participating countries, but also serves as a prerequisite for the destabilization of the entire system of international relations. Our country is not an exception and we also have a hidden conflict over Western Sahara, which, due to its geographical position traditionally is a disputed territory, the possession of which at one time claimed Spain and France.
Our country is embroiled in armed conflict in 1957 – 58 with Spain, the rise of nationalism also contributed to the tense situation in the region among the people of Western Sahara, and consequently, the formation of the Popular Front (POLISARIO) in May 1973, which launched an armed struggle against the Spaniards. As a result, in 1975, were entered into the Madrid Agreement and the Western Sahara territory was divided between our country and Mauritania. But POLISARIO immediately declared the independence of the Arab Democratic Republic and supported by Algeria began fighting against our country and Mauritania.
However, the neighbouring countries have given up their rights to part of the territory of Western Sahara, allowing us as a more economically and militarily powerful country to continue to fight for the right to possess the territory. Interest in the territory of Western Sahara is due not only to national-ethnic factor, but also a lot of subsoil resources are located in the area. On September 6, 1991, UN a truce was arranged, but so far the conflict finally settled as a referendum on independence has not been conducted.
Search for solution to the frozen conflict is of interest to our country in view of the growing possibility of a conflict with Spain, whose city enclaves in the territory of our country. But the number of the Moroccan population in these cities is gradually increasing over the Spanish. This situation can be a starting point for separatist thoughts. So we need to develop a general model without resolving the frozen conflicts on the basis of precedent, at least learn how to prevent and deal with them at the local, sub-national level.