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Training methods

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Often takes people away from their Job for varying periods of time; 3. Equips staff to leave for a better Job. 4. Bad habits passed on 5. Narrow experience. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Michael s. lane, Gerald L. blakely, 1990 Management development programmes are increasingly been studied and evaluated, regarding their efficiency and effectiveness. Presents the results of a survey of 155 directors and vise presidents of personnel and human resource management departments regardin the current status of their management development programes.

The results indicate that management development programes do not seem to differentiate between levels of management Oladele akil, 1991 evaluation is increasingly being regarded as a powerful tool to enhance the effectiveness of training. Three major approaches to training evaluation : quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted . in order to enhance the effectiveness of training, evaluation should be ntegrated with organizational life. Phillip c. right, 1992 reports on the study of current and past training literature which suggest that, to be effective and to isolate both training needs and those problems having other, non trainable solutions, training must be preceded by a needs analysis. proposes a needs assessment model to illustrate an optimum needs assessment process, and compares this model with the Ontario government- Farhad analoui 1995 traditionally, the effectiveness the senior officials with in the public sector has been disproportionately associated with ask instead of people related skills.

A study of 74 senoir managers with in Indian railways, over three years has revealed that managers, in order to become effective, not only require task and people skills but also self development knowledge and skills moreover, the above broad categories ot managerial skills trom a hierarchy which suggest that the more senior position which managers occupy, the greater the need for people and self development . explores the implications of the above for senior management training and development in public sector briefly.

Coe perdue, ack D. Nanemeier, Robert H. woods, 2002) describes a study undertaken to assess how private club managers perceive the relative effectiveness of alternative training method to attain specific type of training objectives. Data were obtained from 123 club managers who were managers of the club managers association of America. Participants rated the effectiveness of 16 alternate training method for potential use in six different types of training situation.

Training method studied included case study, video tape, lecture, one to one, role play, games, computer simulation, paper nd pencil, audio tapes, self assessments, movies/films, multi media, audio, computer and conferencing and sensitivity training, training objectives studied were knowledge acquisition, changing attitudes, problem solving, inter personal skill development, participant acceptance and knowledge retention.

Analysis of data indicated that one to one training is the preferred method to attain all objectives except interpersonal skill development. ( Diarmuid De Faoite, Colette Henry, 2002) discusses the importance of proving the effectiveness of training. Effectiveness is the primary motive for training. Desceibes ways to evaluate trainings effectiveness, behavior changes on the Job being the most impotant. Defines an approach whereby individuals can see how they have changed and quantify the amount of change. Diarmuid De Faoite, Colette Henry, Kate Johnston, peter van der siJde, 2003) A growing body of academic research has examined the effectiveness of entrepreneurship training and support initiatives, with recent studies focusing on the provision of training and other skills development opportunities. An important theme that has emerged from this work is the failure of many programmes and nitiatives to take on board the particular needs of the entrepreneurs in developing training and support systems. kate Johnston, peter van der siJde, 2003) successfully measuring effectiveness in management training and development can be a difficult task. Design of a valid measurement programmed should include evaluation in key areas; including emotional reaction and knowledge gain measured after training interventions. Behavioural change and organizational impact measurements should be used on a longer time horizon to evaluate the progress and currency of the management development programme.

Finally, research shows that maintaining a balance of the above measurements is the final key to success in measuring the effectiveness of management training and development. (Gary D. Geroy, 2004 ) A common approach towards enhancing managerial effectiveness is to focus attention on improving the knowledge and skills of the employers, (ogundeJi, 2004)The gap between evaluation theory and practice is a serious problem for training in industry and business. A recent literature review of the summative evaluation on training noted. (Cilinton O. Longenecker, laurance S. Fink. 05 ) effective management training and consequences of ineffective training programs. Design/methodology/ approach seasoned managers (278) working in rapidly changing organization were surveyed on issues related to management training. Findings- content analyses revealed a number of specific benefits associated with management training. Conversely, managers identified a series ot problems caused by inettective management training. (Ching yaw chen, phyra sok, keomony sok, 2007) purpose- a previous study found that the quality of education in Cambodia is poor compared to other developing countries.

Howrver, the working performance of commercial banks in Cambodia is high. It was speculated that effective training was the main factor underlyingthis contradiction. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to explore the elements of training conducted by commercial banks in Cambodia and to examine their relationship with training effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach – the research focuses on six factors, training needs assessment; training program; flexibility of training; self-efficacy; social support; and transfer of knowledge, the data came in from of questionnaires and desk resarch

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