Essay, 6 pages (1500 words)

Tma02 dd208

The phrase ??? Social Justice??™ implies fairness and obligations within society: that we all have equal chances to succeed in life, and that we should all be responsible for one another. In some societies where the chance to live life how some wish to live are not distributed equally is known as redistribution of opportunities. Struggles against social inequality have led welfare states to redistribute recourses to communities so that all is fair and equal, such as the Health service and schools whatever the income or wealth. Although this is all part of redistribution, the main focus through this is taxation for all.

This is also demonstrated not only amongst our own communities but throughout the world where people give a fraction of their wage to charities that supply to those in less fortunate countries. The most influential thinker on distributive justice has been John Rawls (1971): Rawls argued that ??? policies designed to redistribute recourses were highly desirable for the attainment of a fairer society??? (Rawls, 1971: 15). Contrasting from Social justice, Social injustice is related to unfairness or injustice of a society in its divisions of rewards and burdens and other incidental inequalities. Social injustice comes around when the distribution of advantages and disadvantages in society arent equal. This is criticized by Young that redistribution usually takes place amongst citizens; however it took many generations for women to win equal rights and gain access to recourses that men had been subject to for many years.

Young argues that whilst this was being demonstrated in society, other forms of justice were not being addressed. This is why Rawls theory in particular was criticized by feminist scholars for example, Iris Marian Young who argues that :??? While distributive issues are crucial to a satisfactory concept of justice, it is a mistake to reduce social justice to distribution. ??¦ The distributive paradigm ??¦ tends to focus thinking about the social justice on the allocation of material goods such as things, recourses, income and wealth, or on the distribution of social positions, especially job. ??¦ I wish to displace talk of justice that regards persons as primarily possessors and consumers of goods to a wider context that includes actions, decisions about action, and provision of the means to develop and exercise capacities. (Young, 1990: 16)Struggles for equality have led to changes in welfare and crime control policies and this essay will look at some of the evidence that is used to bring about such changes and will demonstrate that, while statistical data is considered more reliable in demonstrating the extent and impact of inequality, it is best illustrated through people??™s experiences. Social scientists have attempted for a long time to analyze and measure inequality by focusing on the material inequalities of income and wealth. This is done one way through statistical measures also known as quantitative data, such as the Gini Coefficient which measures the spread through inequality of income between countries at different times, Clarke (2008: 35).

Quantitative research has one main advantage as is measures and analyses data through a large scale. While this is a useful comparative tool it measures only a specific form of inequality and income is not the only material assets that can be distributed unevenly. A highly important disadvantage of quantitative research is that the context of the study is ignored, as the results that gained do not discuss the meaning and the impact that social injustice can have on people like qualitative research demonstrates. While quantitative data is a powerful tool, alone it is not enough to give a full picture. The argument that this essay is aiming to portray is that qualitative research is the best advised basis in which to demonstrate social injustice throughout people??™s lives, as not only are the results that you gain accurate, but they are also first-hand encounters of social injustice and how they affect individuals. This type of evidence that we gain has a powerful way of presenting an individual??™s experiences, feelings and impressions of events, which usually are not included in some sources. However, some may argue that the accounts in which people may express are not one hundred percent accurate as they rely on memory and will not necessarily associate with everyone at that time period as some people may of felt different. Nelson Mandela??™s accounts are a prime example of how qualitative research can show us how somebody felt about social injustice, and the way in which different people react to a different situation.

For example, in the extract Nelson Mandela wrote, ??? Long Walk to Freedom??™ the way in which they are subject to social injustice in the work place shows us how experiences of social justice and also social injustice can be demonstrated in our daily lives in any activity we choice to do. As Gaur, another black South African at his first day at his new job, decided to go against what Miss Lieberman had stated when they first arrived at their new job where she greeted them with new mugs for their tea, and use a different mug that was not new. However Nelson Mandela??™s attitude towards this was very different ??? I neither wanted to offend the secretaries nor to alienate my new colleague,??? (Mandela, 1995, p. 83). This social injustice was partial to both their skin color, but both Gaur and Nelson Mandela acted different towards the way that they were subjected, just because of their race. “ Let there be justice for all. Let there be peace for all. Let there be work, bread, water and salt for all.

Let each know that for each the body, the mind and the soul have been freed to fulfill themselves.” Nelson MandelaAnother example of the way in which qualitative research is highly reliable is in DVD 1, where the use of interviews are used in Surveillance to gain a detailed perspective of how the youth of the 21st century are discriminated. Many people associate youths with trouble, by the way they dress and the large groups that they walk about in. This is a significant point in the Surveillance chapter of the DVD as the Leeds Shopping Centre have banned groups of teens to walk around in more than 5.

This is quoted by John White, and he further goes on to state that ??? its intimidating to our staff, customers??¦??™ although this is a first-hand piece of evidence that demonstrates the injustice towards youths, not all evidence can be accurate and reliable, as this is someone??™s opinion, and not been made a rule throughout Shopping Centre??™s in the country. In this first chapter of the DVD there is one in particular piece of research that targets the question well and also the argument that this essay is based upon, Claire, one of the girls interviewed in the Shopping Centre said this, ??? It doesn??™t make you feel very welcome cos they like single you out just cos you??™re young and it??™s not right fair. Cos they don??™t watch older people, just like??¦ When I??™m on my own I don??™t get stared at as much but like when I come out with all them lot and everyone else they all stare in shops and that lot. It??™s not right nice??¦???. This first hand evidence is demonstrating an act of social injustice towards the way in which teens may dress, and the large groups that they may congregate in, however, although it is talking about the style of clothes they wear, it is still targeting their appearance, whether it be the color of their skin, their religion, or their fashion, it is still unjust. When demonstrating Qualitative research, the effect and what it may reveal about social injustice is a lot dependent on the power or status that individual may have, for example, Nelson Mandela was best known for being imprisoned for 27 years because of his support for an anti-apartheid South Africa and being an influential speaker of human rights. This man helped change the views of society, so therefore he would not feel the need to make his experience seem more dramatic that what we all know already, whereas many people contributing their experiences may blend fact and also fiction to dramatize their experiences to make them a lot more powerful and entice people to read more. Throughout this essay, two of the most popular types of research have been clearly outlined, however, there is no right or wrong to say which research method is the most powerful and demonstrates social injustice the best, as it is all down to how it is interpreted and what information you would like to gain.

However the highlight of this essay was to target people??™s emotions and feelings behind social injustice and this could not be demonstrated by the use of numbers and charts, but could be shown by first hand encounters and quotes. http://www. squidoo.

com/nelsonClarke, J. (2008) “ Looking for social justice: welfare states and beyond??? in Newman, J. and Yeates, N (eds.

) “ Social Justice: Welfare, Crime and Society”. Maidenhead, Open University Press/Milton Keynes, The Open University. Newman, J. and Yeates, N.

(2008) “ Making social justice: ideas, struggles and responses??? in Newman, J. and Yeates, N (eds.) “ Social Justice: Welfare, Crime and Society”.

Maidenhead, Open University Press/Milton Keynes, The Open University.

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