Community policing requires police and citizens to Join together as partners in the course of both identifying and effectively addressing these issues. Community policing Is police patrolling a given area not to protect against crime, but to mitigate the effects of crime before they start. Modern policing has returned to its roots, the legacy of Alfred the Great. (The first time in English history that leader or authority figure was considered financially obligated to catch criminals).
Community Policing Is made up of three core elements; Organizational Elements, Tactical Elements, and External elements. Organizational Elements These elements can be broken up Into five areas; Philosophy Adopted Organization- Wide, Decentralized Decision-Making and Accountability, Fixed Geographic Accountability and Generalist Responsibilities, utilization of Volunteer Resources, and Enhancers. Organizational elements also deal with interoperability between agencies local, state and federal.
Philosophy adopted organization-wide Department-wide adoption of community policing is evident by community policing characteristics in each departments; mission statements, policies and procedures, performance evaluations and hilling and promotional practices, training programs and other systems and activities that define organizational culture and activities. Organizational systems support and value a service orientation for seasoned response and new recruits alike by stressing the importance of different units within the agency working cooperatively In support of community policing.
Implementation of the community policing may occur Incrementally and wealth specialized units at first, but a defined path leads towards full, department-wide implementation. Decentralized decision-making and accountability In community policing, Individual officers are given the authority to solve problems and make operational decisions suitable to their roles, both individually and abilities. Leadership is required and rewarded at every level, with managers, previous, and officers all held accountable for decisions and the effects of those decisions throughout the community.
Fixed geographic accountability and generalist responsibilities In community policing, the majority of staffing, command, deployment, and tactical decision-making are geographically based. Appropriate personnel are assigned to fixed geographic areas for extended periods of time in order to foster communication and partnerships between individual officers and their community, they are accountable for reducing crime and disorder within their assigned area. The geographic boundaries are tutorial determined based more on communities rather than statistical divisions.
Areas may overlap or be far apart based on the community characteristics. Utilization of Volunteer Resources Community policing encourages the use of non-law enforcement resources within a police department. Volunteerism is a way to involve active citizens with law enforcement agencies. The law enforcement organization educates the public about ways that they can partner with the police department and its members to further community policing, and provides an effective way to receive citizen input. Volunteer efforts can also help to free up officer time, and allow sworn personnel to be more proactive and prevention oriented.
Examples of such resources might include police reserves, volunteers, Explorer Scouts, service organizations, and citizen or youth police academies. Enhancers There are a number of enhancers and facilitators that may assist departments in their transition to community policing. For example, updated technology and information systems ( such as GIS) can facilitate community policing by providing officers access to crime and incident data which supports problem analysis or increases officer field time by reducing time spent on administrative duties.
The end result is officers spend more time in the community. In addition, enhanced technological and analytical capabilities allow the agency to gather timely information about crime problems, which supports better resource and personnel deployment while providing officers a better understanding of the problems within their geographic areas. Tactical Elements The tactical elements of community policing are made up of three pieces; Enforcement of Laws, Proactive Crime Prevention-oriented, and Problem Solving. Enforcement of Laws
Community policing works excellent with proven and established enforcement strategies, it is one of many tools available to officers that can be collectively employed to prevent and combat crime. Community policing places emphasis on the active partners in identifying laws that need to be amended or enacted, then working with lawmakers and organizing citizen support efforts to change them (such as CERT. teams and Neighborhood watch). Collectively, these activities allow police agencies to address underlying conditions that lead to crime while strongly enforcing weak points within their community.
Proactive Crime Prevention-oriented Departments became highly reactive under the traditional model of policing. Law enforcement responded to calls for service from citizens and focused primarily on arresting offenders after crimes had been committed. Under community policing, law enforcement focuses not only on enforcement, but also on crime prevention and proactively addressing the root causes of crime and disorder. The community actively engages in collaborating on prevention and problem-solving activities with a goal of reducing the victimizing and fear caused by crime. Problem Solving
Police, community members, and other public and private entities work together to address the underlying problems that contribute to crime and disorder by identifying and analyzing problems, developing suitable responses, and assessing the effectiveness of these responses. While enforcement is an integral part of policing, problem-solving relies less heavily on use of the traditional criminal Justice system components and enforcement methods and more on preventing crime through deterring offenders, protecting likely victims, and by making crime locations less conducive to problems.
External Elements External elements of community policing are made up of two branches; Public Involvement in Community Partnerships and Government and Other Agency Partnerships. Involvement in Community Partnerships In community policing, citizens are viewed by the police as partners who share responsibility for identifying priorities, developing ideas and implementing responses. Accurate surveying of customer (citizen) needs and priorities is required under community policing to determine the problems that drive police services, and give the public ownership of the problem-solving process.
Government and Other Agency Partnerships The police are only one of the many local government agencies responsible for responding to community problems. Under community policing, other government agencies are called upon and recognized for their abilities to respond to and address crime and social disorder issues. Community-based organizations are also brought into crime prevention and problem-solving partnerships with the police. The support and leadership of elected officials, as well as the coordination of the police The recent shift to community policing provides ample evidence of law enforcement lying on the public for help.
From citizens on patrol to neighborhood watch, the public today is actively fighting crime along side its police partners. Community policing is a great way to involve the public with the actions of the police department and reduce the tensions that have built up over the years. What exactly is Human Capital? Part II Human capital is a way of defining and categorizing peoples’ skills and abilities as they are used in employment and contribute to the economy. Some economic system theories refer to it simply as labor, one of three factors of production, and insider labor to be a commodity which is easily interchangeable.
Other analysis, for instance in human development theory, differentiate social trust (social capital), sharable knowledge (instructional capital), and the individual leadership and creativity (individual capital) as three distinct capacities of a human and how they apply themselves in economic activity. The term human capital in human development theory refers to a combination of these. Interactions with the welfare, education and health care systems can be modeled even past retirement.
An individual in college and high school would be noninsured as having no human capital value, Just human capital potential. These individuals are of no practical use to society they are a cost and not a profit. But after education when they Join the workforce that potential is met and they become capital and a profit to society. There is a global debate regarding the fair distribution of human capital. This is most pointed with respect to educated individuals, who typically move from poorer places to richer places seeking opportunity, which makes the rich richer and the poor poorer’.
When workers migrate, generally, their early are and education now cost the country where they move to work. And, when they have health problems or retire, their care and retirement pension will typically be paid in the new country. The rights of individuals to travel and opportunity, despite some historical exceptions such as the Soviet bloc and its “ Iron Curtain”, seem to consistently outweigh the rights of surrounding nation-states that nurture and educate them.
Thus, the problem continues, and developed nations deny that actions are appropriate, necessary, or effective, as developing nations lose their talent. Human capitol is constantly fluctuating from pole to pole and poor to rich. This trend may lead to a much offset community yet on the other hand all individuals have some sense of where they are from and not all but, most will return and try to raise human capital where they are from, most probably unknowingly. I am not sure I would refer to this as human capital, I would call it society productivity and look at it nation wide not locality to locality.
In terms of productivity I believe policy should turn towards educating individuals and helping them to get employed sing there needed skills in low areas of Human productivity (areas where they could hopefully it would help to break concentration of human capital and help the economy as a whole to grow. Health Care Right or Privilege part Ill Health Care is a right and not a privilege. I believe that health care should be a right. Several European countries offer free health care to their citizens. The U. S. s run on how much insurance we have and whether or not we will sue the doctors trying to save our lives. I would like to know how other countries are run so that health care is not an issue. In the U. S. Health care is a hot topic ticket item every election. Basic health care should be a right, things such as plastic surgery for a nose job or Jaw restructure. Items such as that should be bought by the people who can afford it and are not really considered by me to be medical procedures. Currently 20 percent of federal spending is used on Medicaid (8%) and on Medicare (12%).
Currently some free medical care is provided to the poor in this country, people who are not below poverty are also opted for free health care. According to the Understanding Public Policy book (tenth edition) if all the monies spent on welfare ND health were to go to each man woman and child (below poverty line) they would each receive over $25, 000 a year. The United States as a whole spends more of its resources on health care than any other advanced industrialized nation, yet it ranks well below other nations in key measures of the health of its people.
The problem is people who refuse to work or go into a life of living off the government because it is the easiest thing for them to do. Some states have opted for plans that allow people to live on free health care and welfare for brief periods of time, like a “ till you are on your feet” assistance plan. After the allotted time they are cut off from federal funding and forced to go out and find a Job or a line f work, which makes them productive parts of society. In general the people view health care as a right.
No individual should have to suffer pain, illness Just because they lack financial resources. This philosophy gets widespread agreement, with all support looking for a way to implement it. Of all the government programs Medicaid is the largest single welfare program for the poor. Medicaid is a combined federal and state program which is designed for needy persons, and no prior contribution by that needy person s required. Medicare provides low cost health treatment to the aged of society. Both programs were enacted in 1965 as amendments to the nations previous basic Social Security Act.
Access to health care is an issue that many Americans have; health care such as Medicaid covers the aged and poor while working class Americans are left without health care and go without needed medical treatments they may need. As the number of elderly grow in the United States the need for long term nursing care increases. Medicare does not pay for this care. Prescription drugs are not covered ender a lot of health plans and those prescription drugs cost more in the U. S. Than in any other country.
If the federal government were to drop the Medicare and Medicaid programs there would be a great uproar because so many Americans are dependent on these programs. The Americans that are dependent on these feet. They are in a rut of there own choosing which the government did not necessarily try to avoid by allowing these individuals assistance. Conclusion: Community Policing is taking great strides to involve the community with the law enforcement agency. Creating a stronger atmosphere of trust throughout the immunity, this reduces violence and the chances of a crime occurring.
When a crime does occur community members in a community policing section are more likely to help the officer and offer valuable information to that officer. As a whole a greater sense of community is built on friendship, knowledge and trust. Human Capital is a very hard thing to Judge and to calculate, what one person perceives as human capital another might disagree. Can Human Capital be solely a person’s “ labor” characteristics, or does potential for success wager in on the scale. Can a person be categorized as a number attributing to the success of a community r does the community as a whole get weighed for capital.
Stronger education along with a defined work ethics code could definitely increase Human Capital but that would be a tremendous cost to taxpayers. Where does federal funding go when education spending is cut every year? Health Care in the U. S. Is generally thought about as being a right that the government denies citizens. If poorer countries than the U. S. Can have better health care what are we doing wrong with our federal funds? Why does the United States spend more money than any other industrialized country on health care and have the poorest health population wide?