The Euros solidifying predators include other insects and birds. The ovipositor, which is the placing of the eggs, occurs in mid- late May (Abramson, Settler, McCrea, and Weiss 1989).
The gall start to appear about 3 weeks after the opposition, and they finish growing, reaching their full size three to four weeks later. The Ian. ‘ a enters a diapers in late September and later in the year around March or April the gall fly larva pupates (Abramson et al. 1989). The Galls provide protection for the larva against non-specialized predators. However these galls are still not enemy ere. The Euros solidifying is not the only organism that emerged from the Golden Rod gall. Three other organisms were also emerged from the galls.
Cane and Corkscrews (1976) found that two types of Erratum and one type of Moralists inhabit the galls. These three organisms are known as some of nature’s specialized predators toward the gall fly (Stone and Schoenberg 2003). The three insects are not the only predators of the gall fly. Birds also prey on this small animal.
The two types of Erratum were the Erratum giant and Erratum obtrusiveness, which are both parasitic wasp. The Erratum Gigantic is an external parasite. The Erratum gigantic attacks after the gall has reached its full size.
The wasp remains in the central chamber of the gall after consuming the larva in mid-August. While in the gall this wasp feeds on the plant matter (Abramson et al. 1989). The Female Erratum giant is technically a different parasitic.
The female wasps inject eggs into to the gall when the gall is thinner than the length of the parasitic. This parasitic is limited to smaller galls. The other type of Erratum is the Erratum obtrusiveness. The Erratum are an internal parasite most prevalent during the hatching of the gall maker’s eggs during the time when the eggs hatch and the larva bore through the stem.
When the Erratum obtrusiveness attacks the larva, it causes the larva to prematurely pupate, and then the parasitic consumes the gall fly. The Erratum obtrusiveness remains in the gall throughout the winter until it pupates in the spring (Malcolm ND). One of the other specialized predators is a beetle Stone and Schoenberg 2003). The specific beetle was the Noradrenalin’s unicorn. The Noradrenalin’s unicorn eats the gall tissues by chewing narrow channels through the gall’s permanency and vascular regions. The larva that hatch early July and bore into the gall tissue by early august.
Although the Noradrenalin’s unicorn is considered to be an animal that lives in a burrow it usually ends up eating the gall fly (Abramson et al. 1989). The galls were not only targeted by parasitic wasp and beetles the galls were also attack by birds. The two birds that mostly attack the Euros solidness were the downy wood pecker and the black-capped chickadee. The mount of bird predation vary from site to site (Abramson et al. 1989). It was found by many scientists that the gall size has a direct relationship with the type and amount of predation that came toward the gall fly. Cane and Corkscrews (1976) found the amount of mortality factors of the population of the Euros solidness and how much of an influence each mortality factor had.
In nearly 28% of all galls, Cane and Corkscrews (1976) found had untouched gall fly larva. The other 72% of the galls had been touch by other factors. About 20% of the galls showed signs of bird predation, 23% ere entered by Erratum obtrusiveness, 1 1% of the galls were affected by the Erratum gigantic, the Noradrenalin’s only affected 1 % of total galls, and the last 17% was affected by unknown factors. Other scientists found similar results but they also found that the percentage varies based on gall size. All of the predators had different preferences on gall size because of particular reasons.
Abramson, Settler, McCrea and Weiss (1989) found that birds were more probable to attack larger galls. The probability of galls being altered by birds ultimately decreased as the gall diameter decreased (Cane and Corkscrews 1976). The Erratum gigantic was also inconsistent with the percentages. Abramson, Settler, McCrea and Weiss (1989) found that the Erratum gigantic was restricted to galls of a particular size range while the other parasitic enemies do not have this restriction such as the Erratum obtrusiveness. When tested the diameter of the galls in which these two organisms were found constantly varied. This data shows that the E. obtrusiveness and M. unicorn have no restrictions regarding gall size.
Interactions between gall flies and the predators of the Euros solidifying re very complex, and the gall size does affect the predators that prey on the gall. Lastly we will not be using the same method of data collection as other scientist (Abramson et al. 1989). We will also be looking at how the gall properties effect the type of predator that preys on the galls. There are some major differences between what we are doing and what these scientists did, For starters we will not be using the same location for gall collection.
Also we will not be measuring the bird predation like Cane and Corkscrews (1976).
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