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The cumulative probabilities of collision engineering essay

Falcon-9[26, 27] a carrier space craft’s will be attached at the lower plane of Neel Kanth. Two such recoverable and reusable space transportation ships will transport the processed materials towards Earth. Every ship departing from Neel Kanth will get payload of around 1200kg. Loading process in the storage zone will check and record the size and weight of material to be transferred. This identifier sends the data to GBO.

1. 2. 3 EXECUTION OF MISSION (ref. fig. 1. 29)

The primary goal of the mission is to mitigate at least 75% of debris that is cost-effective and launch-ready by 2070. As per requirements by 2070, 75% of debris comes out to be 600, 000. For wide distribution of debris in space it will no longer be feasible to grab 330debris per day (ref appendix A-1) with single spacecraft. To overcome this, multiple spacecraft could work parallel. For lower altitudes (below 400 km), atmospheric drag provides a natural cleansing mechanism and hence lowering the cost. Moreover use of a large device, however, poses a threat to other (i. e., functional) objects and would also require active control in order to maintain it in orbit for an extended period of time. Hence it will be highly expensive and risky process to capture and recycle debris from lower altitudes. The task of capturing debris will be completed in five phases.

Phase -1

After getting the contract, an extensive research would be carried out and we would start the recruitment of scientists and mission experts which would be pivotal to carry out this mission. Four Adwityas will be constructed in seven years including testing its various operations. Simultaneously GBO will be developed before the launching of two Adwitya in January 2070. During this phase an important task i. e. survey of debris regions will be done (Ref: appendix: Table A-1) to assess captured distance. The way to do this is: to conduct close approach ground and space analyses; to assess the cumulative probabilities of collision; and, to estimate the capturing distance.

Phase -II

25. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/HEPA#Function26http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Falcon_9#Features27. http://spaceflightnow. com/falcon9/004/falcon9. htmlIn second phase Adwityas will receive commands from GBO and Zenith and will start capturing the target debris after shifting its position from parking orbit. Upon release of the captured debris in Jumbo, Adwitya will again raise its orbit to rendezvous with the next debris target. (fig 1. 3).

Phase-III

Once the jumbo is full with captured debris, it will initiates a de-orbit maneuver using its own pro-pulsion system towards Neel Kanth. (fig 1. 16)

Phase – IV

In this phase as the de-orbiting process of Jumbo completes, it docks with Neel Kanth. Lower vent of Jumbo will transfer collected debris into Neel Kanth and recycling procedure of materials will start.

Phase -V

The processed material, including metals and non-metals will automatically shifted in the storage zone and will be sent inside the Falcon –9 ready to transport towards Earth.

1. 2. 4 TECHNOLOGIES USED

Through the implementation of high Technology Readiness Level (TRL)[28] components, an effective solution to active debris removal can be achieved.

ZENITH AND ADWITYA

Remote sensing of space debris in LEO will use mixed mode RADAR. The radar beam is pointed to a pre-determined position in space and after detection the object is tracked and observation vectors are collected. From the evaluation of angular rate and range rate as a function of time, orbital elements can be derived. For providing statistical information and rough orbit parameters for objects as small as 1 cm at altitudes up to 2000 km the observatories are coupled with higher resolution radio telescope. Radio telescope will be used to tracking data from GBO or from space. It operates in the radio frequency portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It is basically a large parabolic dish (antenna). The diameter of dish is 150 meter. It includes reflector, sub reflector, amplifier and receiver. Dish will be comprised of 20, 000 perforated Aluminum panels used to reflect signals to sub-reflector. Radio signals coming from astronomical sources are collected by reflectors and are received by receiver and are amplified at an appropriate frequency. Because of the smaller distance between the observer and the debris and disturbing effect of the atmosphere (extinction and absorption of electromagnetic signals) in space we use telescopic cameras. When the sky background is dark, the debris are bright. For objects in LEO, this period is limited to an hour or two just after sunset or before sunrise. During rendezvous, the spacecraft will use a relative positioning navigation but an absolute altitude to collect data about the target debris in terms of position, swing rate, status of the grabbing point. During the parking orbit, the Adwitya has to be 3-axis stabilized to maintain the communication link. So the main requirement of the phase for AOCS is to control every disturbance e. g. gravity gradient, the solar radiation and the aerodynamic drag etc. 28. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Technology_readiness_level#NASA_definitions29. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Technology_readiness_level30. http://www. nasa. gov/centers/marshall/pdf/115938main_ARIS_FS. pdfTo perform the control of the spacecraft against these disturbances, four reaction wheels will be implemented to control the attitude. They will be helped by two sun sensors and two earth sensors (one main and one for redundancy). To perform an accurate re-entry, Jumbo will spin up to use a gyroscopic control. The design of this gyroscopic control is to determine the slew rate from the maximum precession angle that can be allowed. Space ventures visualized the need of vibration and jerk absorbers in various components of Adwitya and structural isolation has been accomplished by introducing Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS)[30] at different locations that provides detection and isolation of vibrations. ARIS installed at different locations especially e. g. joints of robotic arms, joining part of gravitation module with central cylinder of Adwitya, tentacles of tether net systems etc. reduces vibrations using a combination of sensors and actuators. When the sensors detect a disturbance while capturing process, the actuators counter the effect by sending a reactive force between the location and the control unit. This ” smart” shock absorber is finely tuned to react to, and cancel out, very minute vibrations caused due to debris collision with main structure or during capturing process. Accelerometer assemblies measure the disturbances and send data to the ARIS electronic control unit. A micro gravity rack barrier prevents accidental disturbances to the active ARIS rack. ARIS is designed to isolate all frequencies greater than 0. 01 Hz, and is most effective in the 0. 05- to 300-Hz range. In addition to it the SHOCK RING TECHNOLOGY (fig 1. 20) also known as ESPA Evolved Secondary Payload Adaptor[31]. These supporting rings are installed on connecting parts of VASIMR engine Adwitya. Use of ICRF[32] (Ion-Cyclotron Resonant Frequency) avoids improper combustion of fuel in Adwitya, which directly results in raising efficiency of propellant system. This technology works at- fuel and oxidizer separating nozzle and ensures that the plasma will efficiently detach (Complete combustion) from the magnetic field to provide propulsion through a highly directed exhaust stream. EFCU-Exhausting Fuel Control Unit enables us to control the amount of fuel required for magnetic suspension system and maintains the stability and accuracy in speed of Vasimr Engines according to our requirement. It also enhances the speed variability requirement of Vasimr. This is very important because Vasimr engine requires sophisticated control strategies and equipment to recover the effects in instability to the system. DSN [33]-Deep Space Networking antennas (ref. fig1. 30) deployed on Adwitya provide boost in sending and getting signals. The reflector surface is precision-shaped for maximum signal-gathering capability than any other DSN antennas. A major change in the design is the addition of five precision radio frequency mirrors that reflect signals along a beam-waveguide tube from the vertex of the antenna of Zenith. This antenna maintains continuous signal stability from Zenith and GBO (fig 1. 31). Low gain antenna has also been installed on Zenith to communicate with GBO. Zenith receives signals from navigation and monitoring sensors to establish the state of the Adwitya, and implements controls software to activate analog to digital converter system (ADCS), power and propulsion systems to maintain the desired orbit. This system also relays information to GBO and receives commands from it during the mission. For most of the mission, when Adwitya acquires the orbit of debris or during de-orbiting, the data rates are estimated to be ≤ 1 k Bit/sec. The most data-intensive part of the mission is during rendezvous and capture, when live video of the debris is relayed to GBO for assessment (fig1. 31) and determination of propulsion and robotic arm maneuvers needed to capture the target. 31. http://smallsatrideshare. wikispaces. com/ESPA32 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Ion_cyclotron_resonance33. http://deepspace. jpl. nasa. gov/dsn/antennas/34m. htmlData will be stored using Holographic data storage, which records 515 gigabits per square inch on storage media. Work and administrators computer data will be stored on server hard drives installed in GBO and zenith. This will allow access to that data though any such computer. In Neel Kanth HEPA the air filters will set to filter 99. 97% of the particles produced in the process of de-coating of junk from the substituent which are bigger than 0. 3 micrometer which will pass from it.

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