In this the chapter , provide the information about the outline of entire research which begins with the topic of research. In next aims and objective also introduces . The reason of choosing the topic is described in the background of the research, statement of problems and research rationale. Furthermore, this chapter also discussed theoretical areas by which to clarify and answer the research question which how customer think about their community pharmacy. The advantage of this study is also mentioned. Additionally, the author drawn a conclusion at the end of this chapter before introduce the audience to the next chapter which is the literature review. The research topic as follows ;
The attitudes toward quality of community pharmacy services in London ;
1. 2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND
Health and Medicines are fundamental human right. According to the Medicines & Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA), 2011 the revised definition of a medicine is:” Any substance or combination of substances presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings; or Any substance or combination of substances which may be used in or administered to human beings either with a view to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action, or to making a medical diagnosis” According to Moscow’s Theory medicine which help human being by supporting the body and mind when the weak and symptom appear. Medicine also one of the basic requirements for survival of human being (Ventegodt et al, 2003). Typically, when people get minor ailments , they usually go to consult with a pharmacist who recommend what medicine they should use or take at a local community pharmacy , or consult a GP which describe a medicine that they need to collect at the local pharmacy. There are about 1. 8 million peoples visit a pharmacy everyday ( Understanding and making the best use of community pharmacy (Buster , 2005). As contractors of a community pharmacy is different from other businesses which they will be wearing two hats. One role or hat is that of a pharmacy which wish to help and provide healthcare services to patients or customers. Another role or hat is to maintain the business profits. It does not easy to balance these hats and role in community pharmacy business. In addition, These days community pharmacies and pharmacist role are not only the main suppliers of medicine or dispensing medicine . Furthermore, ‘ Community pharmacies and pharmacists have the potential to contribute to the public’s health ‘ ( Blenkinsopp , Anderson , Armstrong 2003 : 3 ) and they are providing an important source of wide range of health care services in the community. Customers perceive pharmacists as a highly reliable advice on personal health matters and health care products (Benrimoj et al , 2004 : 238 ). There are not only external environmental pressures, the increasing of the number of competitive market is one of the force in community pharmacy. According to NHS Information Centre, (2011) present that in the five years from 2005 to 2010 , more than ten times or around 1, 200 new licences have been issued (2. 1 percent increasing) (see appendix 1). In order to compete with rival, the community pharmacy need to understand customer perspective and behaviour which can help provider to contribute their business and survive in the market.
1. 3 BACKGROUND OF HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN THE UK
Healthcare in the UK is free service to all the UK’s citizens from all the point of delivery which is the few countries in the world has provided (Green, 2009). The citizens of the UK including armed forces’s members who are serving outside the UK. The National Health Service (NHS) is taken mainly responsible Healthcare system in the UK. The NHS is governed by the Department of Health. At the beginning, the NHS is under one national organisation, which covered the whole of the country, but more recently, it has been decentralised into four independent organisations; one for each of the countries, which make up the United Kingdom. The treatment of policies, healthcare budgets and vaccination programmes are under responsibility of Care trusts. The mandatory financial support of health care service is from the National Insurance Taxation which paid by employers who have an obligatory contribution and directly from the salaries of employees. The full contribution paid for Self-employed persons. The UK has a moderately forceful private healthcare sector, that is funded mainly by private insurance contributions, but it is used merely by a manipulated percentage of people , frequently as a top up to the fundamental state health care Contributions to private funds vary from person to person and are dependant on general health, age, the existence of previously diagnosed diseases, and the level of care required by each person. There are only 9 percent of revenue from outpatient , inpatient and day-case was funded by the NHS, 67 per cent was funded by private medical insurance and the remainder by self-paying UK and overseas patients in 2003-4. (Talbot-Smith and Pollock , 2006).
1. 4 RATIONALE FOR CHOOSING THE TOPIC
The most important cost driver of healthcare expenditure in community pharmacy are medicines. The community pharmacy in the UK is primary healthcare. People who have minor illness will go to buy medicines at local community pharmacy. In addition, there are more community pharmacy provider are increasing. The supermarket such as Sainbury , Tesco and Asda are coming in the market. This research aims to study how people use their community pharmacy and their attitude toward quality of community pharmacy will help to give an advise to community pharmacy providers in the UK to survive in this business. Moreover, from eight years work experience in community pharmacy and in hospital in Thailand of researcher, the role of the pharmacist has changed over last decades it does not only in Thailand and also in all over the world . Pharmacists are now involved in the provision of pharmaceutical care and specialized cognitive services. These new role of community pharmacist has changed the behaviour of pharmacist in care service . This research will examine the attitude toward quality of consumer who has experience in local community pharmacy services in order to inform how best to improve and support this service
1. 5 PURPOSE FOR UNDERTAKING THE RESEARCH
The purpose of this research study is to explore the attitude toward quality of community pharmacy care in consumer’s perspective in three dimensions : structure , process and outcome. The guiding theoretical conceptual framework to conduct this study was the Avedis Donabedian ‘ s Quality Theory.
1. 6 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Community pharmacy is one of the most fundamental change for decades since the NHS introduce the new contract by implementation of new General Medical Service contact and removal of some restrictions on the award of NHS contracts during 2004-5 ( Tann and Blenkinsopp , 2004 : 1 ). While the expectation in the stronger role of pharmacies in managing chronic conditions is rising , patients also expecting more from their pharmacist, with the convenience and quality of service ( Analysis of a representative sample of PNA survey results), the budgets for National Health Service (NHS) was cut. According to Anscombe , Thomas and Plimley (2012: 3) state that the economics of community pharmacy are under pressures especially for independent pharmacies. In addition, there are increasing of competitors which not only supermarkets , out-of-town shopping but also alternative channels such as mail-order and Internet. The role of community pharmacy is dual both health and commercial. The competition in the community pharmacy market is more intense. The evaluate of the attitude toward quality of community pharmacy services in patients’ view in this research will be fundamental knowledge of the community pharmacy provider to improve and change their service to optimize the local community health and survival of their business.
1. 7 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What is the the attitude of consumer perspective toward quality of community pharmacy services in London? What is the relationship between consumer’s perspective and social-demographic characteristics? How consumers in London usually use their community pharmacy?
1. 8 RESEARCH AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research is to evaluate how people use their local community pharmacy and the attitude toward quality of community pharmacy services ; consumer’s view in London
The objectives for the entire research are mentioned below: To evaluate the attitude of consumer perspective toward quality of community pharmacy services in London. To investigate the relationship between consumer’s perspective and social-demographic characteristics. To investigate consumer perspective of using their community pharmacy. To give appropriate recommendations to the community pharmacy provider.
1. 9 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study generated information about the attitude toward quality of the community pharmacy services: consumer perspective in London. It will gain the benefit of the pharmacy provider who looking to improve their quality of serviceHelp to attain a better understanding of how consumer behaviours and their expectation of community pharmacy. The aim is to identify what needed by the consumer. To make the community pharmacy providers aware of advantage of understanding consumer need and how to approach the development of the best service in order to achieve the highest benefit in consumer health service.
1. 10 STRUCTURE OF THE DISSERTATION
The structure of the dissertation has been represented by mapping the outline of the entire research which contain of six chapters ( see figure 1. 4 )Figure 1. 4 The structure of entire researchSource: Created by the author (2013)Chapter 1 . An introduction to the study including the background and the aims and objective of this dissertation. The rationale for this research and statement of the research problem has been presented , including the benefits that the author wishes to contribute to the community pharmacy providers. Chapter 2 . This chapter provides the discussion of essential theoretical background and reviews the literature from secondary research that relate to issues in this research , such as community pharmacy , local pharmacy , community pharmacist , role of community pharmacy , attitude of pharmacy provider , attitude of consumers or patients , quality of service and customer behaviours. The data were gathered from reliable sources such as books, e-books , journals, articles and newspapers in order to support the ideas of this research with up-to-date information. Chapter 3 This is where the research process is represented with clear justification of techniques which were applied towards the methodology in this research. Ethical concerns also are included in this chapter. Chapter 4 This chapter represents the analysis of the data from primary research for which the researcher conducted a survey using a questionnaire. Basic statistic formula and descriptive statistics apply to this research by using SPSS , as well as a Chi-square analysis is used in order to find the relationship between socio-demographic and customer attitude toward quality of community pharmacy services. Furthermore , the findings were included at the end of this chapter. Chapter 5 The conclusion has been made with regards to the aims and objectives of the research based on the findings in comparison to the secondary and primary data. Moreover , appropriate recommendations are embraced in this chapter which shows how community pharmacy can improve their service which is suitable for their customer perception .
1. 11 CHAPTER CONCLUSION
The details which are mentioned in this chapter represent an overview of the entire research that the author provides a conceptual framework which a clear picture of the ideas of the aims and objectives of this research and the brief synopsis of the literature review. In addition, the reason of choosing the topic has been present. Furthermore, the background of this research , statement of problems and rational of this research also provided. Finally, the structure of the research outline has been presented before the conclusion. The next chapter presents a literature review of the secondary research which the information gathering from authority has been discussed , covering the field of community pharmacy and its relationship to consumer behaviour and quality of health care services.