Essay, 5 pages (1200 words)


SENTENCES What is sentences? Sentence is a large unit of words that is grammatically complete and used to express exclamation, statement , and questions. A sentence must have a main clause or more than one main clause. There are as many clauses as there are finite verbs in a sentence. (The finite verb is the verb that changes with the person or number of the subject.) ;  FORMS OF SENTENCES * Simple sentence: A sentence with one independent clause and no dependent clauses. Example: Ezra enjoyed the evening party. The boy finished his food quickly. * Compound Sentence: A sentence with multiple independent clauses but no dependent clauses. Example: I scared my brother, and he cried instantly. Born on March 9, 1930 and she is considered leader of the pact. * Complex Sentence: A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Example: After she finished her lunch, she washed the dishes. Sara practised so hard because her dance recital is nearing. FUNCTIONS OF SENTENCE There are four sentence functions in English:  declarative, exclamatory, interrogative, and imperative. * Declarative sentences state an idea. It was stated that Malaysia and Japan are officially in war. The old lady is staring at us. * Exclamatory sentences often ends with exclamatory mark(!). They also show strong emotions. This is such a pathetic party! * Interrogative sentences ask a question. it They end with a question mark(?). Would you like to have another cup of coffee? Have you ever thought of my feelings? * Imperative sentences give orders or directions, and so end with a period or an exclamation mark. Take the books to Mr Mahendran. Everyone please keep quiet! STRUCTURES OF SENTENCE * Simple sentences This type of sentences are the easiest of all. SENTENCE         =            SUBJECT         +           PREDICATE The subject often occurs at the beginning of the sentence and they indicate the topic of the discussion. Subject of a sentence also consist of noun phrase. The predicate usually follows the subject and often starts with a verb . A predicate convey thought about the subject. A subject and predicate, together, form a simple sentence. The term  ” simple” refers to the basic structure of a sentence. Simple sentences can be: * short or long, * can express simple or complex thoughts and may contain complex constructions Examples: * Marie who suddenly appeared in the middle of the party with a ridiculously looking hat on her head ate the whole turkey on her own. * Marie ate the turkey. Both of the sentences are simple and they can be reduced with the usage of pronoun. * Marie ate it * Compound sentences. As stated, a compound sentence consist of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clause. Compound sentences can be structured using three methods; 1. Using a comma and a coordinating conjunction We can use a comma and a coordinating conjunction to join two or more independent clauses into a compound sentence. The comma comes before the conjunction. Examples of conjunctions; for,  and,  nor,  but,  or, yet and so Independent clauses + coordinating conjunctions + Independent clauses Ezra used to love singing, but he lost his voice. He was starving , so I cooked him a quick meal 2. Using a semicolon. A semicolon, like a period, creates a stop between two independent clauses. Independent clauses + semicolon + Independent clauses I cleared the room; Ezra painted it I couldn’t eat the pizza; she was staring at me. 3. Using a semicolon with a transitional expression. A transitional expression shows the relationship between two ideas. A semicolon with a transitional expression often makes a smoother connection than a semicolon alone. Examples of transitional expressions are: Addition:  also, in addition, moreover Contrast:  however, in contrast, on the other hand Result:  therefore, as a result, consequently Example:  for example, for instance Listing:  first, second, third A comma is used after the transitional word or expression. Independent clauses + semicolon + transition + Independent clauses Examples: I cleared the room; on the other hand, Ezra painted it. * Complex sentence A compex sentence is formed when you join a main clause and an dependent clause. Example; Although it was raining, I managed to catch the bus. Note! Although it was raining = this is a dependent clause as it does not make sense on its own. If I practice harder, we might win the Olympiad. Though he was tired, Ezra finished his essay. When he screamed, everyone was startled. The examples above follows the pattern ; dependent clause main clause The same sentence are used below but with the format ; main clause dependent clause We might win the Olympiad , if I practised harder. Ezra finished his essay, though he was tired. Everyone was startled, when he screamed. When a complex sentence starts with a dependent clause, the sentence begin with subordinate conjunction. Ie: after, although, as,, unless, because, when, where, wherever, even, if, since, The subordinate clause can also be put in the middle of the main clause. Miller , who stutters , gave out the speech. Malik, talking to himself, fell the over the stone. PATTERNS OF SENTENCE STRUCTURES Independent clause I love eating raw foods. Lou starts singing at the age of five. She is a proud person. Independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent clause Morrie is nice, but he is sarcastic. I went for morning walk, and I found a dead body. Lola hates me, yet she visits me everyday. Independent clause + semicolon + independent clause. I walked quickly; the rain poured heavily He fell of the stair; the tiles were oily Mae slept on the bed; Ryan rested on the couch. Independent clause + adverbial conjunction + independent clause I went for a walk; consequently, I was soothed by the gentle night air. I talked for hours; eventually, I got tired. Dependent marker + clause + independent clause Because I hoped to be soothed by the gentle night air, I went for a walk Before the situation turns worse, I pushed everyone out. Relative pronoun + clause The beautiful scenery which took my breath away. Whoever danced well was given ticket to the concert. Marie was dumbfounded when she found out the truth. Dependent clause + independent clause + coordinating conjunction + independent clause As I walked out of the room, all the memories played in my mind, and I started to feel guilty. Before she tore the paper, I grabbed her hand, and she screamed. After finishing the homework, I rest, but I couldn’t sleep. * TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES The basic sentence may be transformed in the following ways: 1. Transform to passive voice Active = I gave Zoe a book Passive = The book was given to Zoe by me. 2. Transform to the expletive  there is / there are Sentence = The insect is creeping on the floor Transformed = There is an insect creeping on the floor. 3. Transform to negative Original sentence = That is my car. Transformed = That is not my car. 4. Transform to interrogative Original sentence = Ben is my kitten The cat is eating the fish Marie was getting healthy Transformed = Is Ben my kitten? What is the cat eating?| Was Marie getting healthy? 5. Transform to emphasis / emphatic To make the emphatic transformation, place do, does,  or did in front of the verb Original sentence = I gave Ashfaq a ring. I love Maddy. The people made Danny famous. Transformed = I did gave Ashfaq a ring. I do love Maddy. The people did make Danny famous 6. Transform to imperative 7. Transform to exclamatory * REFERENCES http://www. writingcentre. uottawa. ca/hypergrammar/phrfunc. html http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/sentence structure http://www. towson. edu/ows/sentence. htm Abdul Halim bin Ibrahim , Dr. (2012). Building Sentenses Skills Part 1

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