- Published: October 27, 2022
- Updated: October 27, 2022
- University / College: City University of New York
- Language: English
- Downloads: 17
Rodentia was known as the largest group of mammals. Approximately 2, 050 living species of rodents categorized by upper and lower growing incisor teeth in spite of their range of species, all rodents share common features such jaw formation ensure food is chewed, powerful rear part of the cheek from the temporal bone attach to jaw and skulls in unusual arrangement provide for chewing and gnawing which rats use in taking the bait on a rope. People recognized mice as vermin that damages properties.
Rodents cost billions of crops each year and some are the carrier of human illness such bubonic plague, typhus, and Hanta fever. As the ancient history of pesticides includes rodenticides grows to prevent increasing population of the pest. Oldest available record of Homer’s mentions about 1000 B. C. that Odysseus burned sulfur to cleanse the hall, house and the court (Odyssey XXII, 492–494). The Ebers Papyrus on 1550 B. C. , expel fleas from the inside of the house. In 23 to 79 A.
D, Pliny the Elder gathered in his natural History many anecdotes on pesticides in past four centuries (Shepard, 1939) then 40 to 90 A. D, Dioscorides knew contents of toxic of sulfur and arsenic. Former records showed on 900 A. D that Chinese were applied arsenic sulfides to control garden insects. The overturn album and v. nigrum plant was known in ancient times this employed by Romans as rodenticides. The organic first synthetic insecticides presented in 1930’s is consist of dinitro compounds and thiocyanates.
Pesticides proved it is used in the period of ancient times then as years progress new pesticides materials expand to the variation of plants and significant discoveries occurred including DDT, organophosphates, and pyrethroids since it has a major impact on modern society, the progression of the properties will be soon reviewed. Gliricidia sepium has also been used extensively outside its native range in places which include the Caribbean, the Philippines, India, Sri Lanka and West Africa.
Gliricidia sepium as a green plant that has medium structure, thornless and single to multiple 20 m tall stemmed tree and 1 m in stem width with a rounded crown. leaflets were elliptic in shaped usually 4 to 8. 3 cm in length and 1. 7 to 8cm in width. The flowers are made erect, 2 to 15 cm long arising from the leaves node of older stems and it’s the maturation of 30-100 flowers on the single process of flowering. Moreover, it is an adaptable, rapid growing, precociously seeding tree capable to disperse seeds up to 40m from the origin tree from exploding pods however it is potentially invasive species.
Leaves, seeds or powdered bark of Gliricidia sepium has a purpose to use in poison rats, mice, and other rodents when mixed and cooked rice or maize then fermented. The Pakistan Agriculture Research Council recently obtain knowledge of potentials of legium tree that could kill field rats which is serious pests in the agriculture industry and our economy also it stated rats died due to haemorrhage in the guts, lungs, and spleen, just like the costly, hard to obtain coumerin without harming any animals and human organisms.
The Gliricidia sepium is an excellent rat poison defined by the statement of Alfredo Rabena “ The more leaves the more concentrate the pesticide is,”. According to the Pakistan Agriculture Research Council, Gliricidia sepium from Fabaceae family which means “ rat poison” is known as a useful tree that aid to increasing numbers of yield crops in a country where the soil is healthy and produce more crops.
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