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Research methods in the social sciences

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The researcher will write a brief outline of the entire research procedure in the Abstract of the research, in which the research topic, theoretical framework, hypothesis, and research tools and techniques will be discussed. In addition, the researcher will describe the universe selected for his study.
The first chapter of the research will consist of an introduction, in which the causes of selecting the topic and significance of the topic will be discussed. The statement of the problem will also be the part of the chapter, in which the researcher will define the problem in detail, and the objectives of the study will also be described in a precise way. The following hypothesis will be developed for the present study:
The different the social classes in a society, the different the patterns of spending their leisure time
The first chapter will also discuss the sociological significance of the problem, which must be analyzed keeping in mind the contemporary challenges faced by the social set up.
The second chapter of the research will consist of the literature relevant to the study. The researcher will explain the studies have already been conducted on the same and similar topics. These studies might be on social classes, leisure time, social discrimination, and the patterns of recreational activities.
Chapter three will carry a theoretical framework, in which Thorstein Veblen’s Theory of Leisure Class (1912) and Social Stratification Theory developed by Davis & Moore (1945) will be explained with reference to the present research. The researcher will interlink these theories with his research work.
Chapter four of the present study will describe the universe and sampling procedure. Since the researcher aims to conduct his study in New York City, the universe will be the people belonging to divergent social and cultural classes of New York. Quantitative methods of research will be applied in this study. “ Sociologists use many different methods of social research. Quantitative methods often rely on surveys and statistical analysis of already gathered data, while qualitative methods use focus groups, participant observation, and other techniques.” (wordiq. com)
The researcher will apply quota sampling in order to give equal representation to the individuals coming from the upper, middle, and lower classes of society. In quota sampling, every group is given specific or proportional representation in order to make it the representative of the universe. Interview-schedule will be the tool for data collection for the present research, which will carry thirty-nine questions.
Chapter five will consist of the findings of the research, which will be tabulated and would be presented in graphs. The statistical test will also be applied in this chapter, and the hypothesis will either be accepted or rejected on the basis of the research findings. The final chapter will carry the summary, conclusion, and suggestions, where ethical issues will also be discussed at the end of the chapter.
Ethical Issues: Every social research raises some ethical issues, which should strictly be considered while conducting the research. First of all, the researcher will strictly adhere to the policy of neutrality and impartiality, and will not ask any question that may directly hit racial, ethnic, religious, and financial activities as well as related to the political affiliations, sexual preferences, and orientation of the respondents and thus can hurt their feelings and sentiments. Secondly, the researcher will not display any type of prejudice towards any specific class, community, or group of the society; nor will the interview-schedule ask any unnecessary questions that come under the fold of very personal issues. Moreover, the research team will be comprised of all the purposes and plans determined for conducting the research, and nothing would be concealed from the knowledge of the research team. “ Research staff and subjects must be informed fully about the purpose, methods, and intended possible uses of the research, what their participation in the research entails and what risks, if any, are involved. Some variation is allowed in very specific and exceptional research contexts for which detailed guidance is provided in the policy Guidelines.”
Furthermore, the respondents will not be forced to become part of the research procedure; on the contrary, only the volunteers will be the respondents of the present study. Moreover, the researcher should not perform research work against the moral values prevailing in society. The answers should also be judged and assessed through the facial expressions of the respondents while using the interview-schedule, but the words delivered from the mouths of the respondents should be given vital importance.
Since leisure time is related to every individual of a social set up, and everyone studying or working somewhere intends to spend and enjoy his leisure time after a job, the topic will certainly maintain sociological significance in it.

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