Criterion-related Validity: Satisfaction With Life Scale correlated with ten other measures of subjective well-being (SWB). Most measures correlated at an r = . 50 and above (Diener and Pavot, 1993).
The Satisfaction With Life Scale has shown strong internal reliability of 0. 57 – 0. 75 in a sample of undergraduate university students and from 0. 63 – 0. 81 in a sample of elderly persons (Diener et al., 1985 cited in Teasell, 2011) and moderate temporal stability. The test-retest reliability coefficient was 0. 82 for a 2-month interval and 0. 84 for a 2-week interval. Test-retest reliability of 0. 83 was established for 2 weeks to 4 years interval (Diener, 1985 cited in Teasell, 2011).
Normative data is available for a diverse population including older adults, college students, prisoners, brain injury patients and abused women (Diener and Pavot, 1993).
3. 3. 3. PROCEDURE
Stratified random sampling was used where the sample was divided into two strata for the two comparative groups of yoga practitioners and non-yoga practitioners. In order to administer the test, permission was taken from Yoga institutes, yoga classes and companies, and consent was taken from prospective subjects for the sample of this research study. Following their consent, each individual was assured that no information would be disclosed and the same would be used purely for research purposes. On agreement of these terms, demographic details were taken, the standardized instructions were given and the Satisfaction with Life Scale was administered. As such, life satisfaction was not sensitive to testing conditions (Kozma, Stone and Stones, 1997). The sample was also debriefed about the objective of the current research and was appreciated for their co-operation and time.
3. 3. 4. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN
A randomized between-group post-test only design was employed for the study. Life satisfaction of two independent groups will be compared.
The graphical representation of the experimental design is as follows:
Where R denotes random selection of the sample
O denotes the Life Satisfaction scores on the Satisfaction With Life Scale
OÄ± denotes the Life Satisfaction scores of Yoga Practitioners on the Satisfaction With Life Scale
O2 denotes the Life Satisfaction scores of Non-Yoga Practitioners on the Satisfaction With Life Scale
3. 3. 5. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
T-test is the appropriate analysis for a randomized between-group post-test only experimental design because it is used to compare the means of two independent samples and to determine if there is significant difference between them. Thus, the statistical analysis of the T-test was used to study if there was significant difference in the means of the two comparative groups on Life Satisfaction measured by the Satisfaction With Life Scale.
3. 4. SUMMARY
This chapter described the methodology employed for this research. This included the variables under study with their operational definitions, the controlled variables, and the hypothesis formulated on the basis of literature review. It also described the sample under study, the tool employed, the procedure followed for data collection, the experimental design and the statistical analysis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4. 1. INTRODUCTION
This chapter comprises of the two sections namely, the statistical analysis of the data obtained and the discussion of the results.
4. 2. RESULTS
This section entails the statistical analysis of the obtained data for the two groups, yoga practitioners and non-yoga practitioners using Descriptive Statistics and Independent Samples T-test.
Table 4. 1. (a) showing Descriptive Statistics for Yoga Practitioners and Non Yoga Practitioners on the Satisfaction With Life Scale.
Non Yoga Practitioners
From Table 4. 1. (a) showing the descriptive statistics for the two comparative groups it was observed that the total sample (N) consisted of 200 individuals, 100 yoga practitioners and 100 non-yoga practitioners. For the group of non-yoga practitioners, the Mean was calculated to be 23. 71 with a Standard Deviation of 3. 19. For the group of yoga practitioners, the Mean was calculated to be 27. 75 with a Standard Deviation of 2. 98.
Table 4. 1. (b) showing Independent Sample T-test for the sample of Yoga Practitioners and Non-Yoga Practitioners on Life Satisfaction.
Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances
T-test for Equality of Means
Equal Variances Assumed
– 9. 22
– 4. 04
Table 4. 1. (b) shows the Independence Sample T-test for the two comparative groups, yoga practitioners and non-yoga practitioners on life satisfaction. In the Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances, the F value obtained was 0. 51 which was significant at the 0. 47 level indicating that the homogeneity in the sample was maintained. Thus, equal variances were assumed. In the T-test for Equality of Means, the t value obtained was – 9. 22 with df value (degree of freedom) of 198 which was significant at the 0. 000 level. The mean difference obtained was – 4. 04. The significant difference obtained between the two comparative groups thus indicated that yoga practitioners showed significantly higher life satisfaction compared to non-yoga practitioners.
4. 3. DISCUSSION
The present study is a comparative study of yoga practitioners and non-yoga practitioners on life satisfaction. From the above section, the t value of – 9. 22 was significant at the 0. 000 level. Thus the hypothesis stating that ‘ the scores on life satisfaction will be significantly higher for yoga practitioners than non-yoga practitioners’ was accepted because the statistical analysis of the obtained data showed a significant difference between the two groups.
In congruence to the above findings, previous researches done on the practice of yoga and satisfaction with life are listed below.
Gharote (1982) studied the psychophysiological effects of meditation (Pranayama) and yogasanas on personality and use of yoga in therapy over a period of one year on several individuals who enrolled at the College of Yoga and Cultural Synthesis at Kaivalyadhyama, Lonavala. On various testing grounds, meditation and yogasanas decreased neuroticism, increased extroversion and self-control, self-actualization, happiness and psychological well-being (Gharote, 1982).
From the above study it was inferred that practice of yoga increased happiness and life satisfaction.
Bhushan (1998) studied the effect of a 14 month yoga course on measures of psychological well-being. The Satisfaction With Life Scale and Spielberger’s State Trait Anxiety Inventory were administered before and after the yoga course to 139 employed individuals. When the pre and post intervention scores obtained for the two variables, life satisfaction and anxiety were compared, an interesting finding was seen. There was a significant decrease for those with initial high levels of anxiety, and life satisfaction had increased after the yoga course (Bhushan, 1998 cited in Thomas, 2008)
From the above study it was inferred that yoga increased life satisfaction and reduced anxiety.
Jhansi (2007) studied the impact of yoga training on self-ideal disparity (incongruence between real self and ideal self) and psychological well-being on an experimental sample of 19 adults who had completed a yoga training course for six months and a control sample of 19 adults who had newly enrolled for the same. The experimental sample was tested after their yoga course and the control sample was tested before it on self-ideal disparity and on a scale of psychological well-being. Results revealed that the experimental group showed
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