- Published: July 31, 2022
- Updated: July 31, 2022
- Level: Doctor of Philosophy
- Language: English
- Downloads: 26
Reading Summaries The analysis made by the human academic rights literature tries to identify human rights in four schools, which include the natural, deliberate, protest and disclose scholars. The natural scholar concept focuses on the general understanding about the human rights (Dembour 2). These rights are based on the nature and the human natural character. However, the deliberate scholar rejects the natural concept on human rights arguing that human rights come into reality through societal agreement. In addition, they think that human rights should be constituted through legal and political means, which then are applied to rule the society. Protest scholars are concerned with restoring injustice. In protesters concept, they look at human rights as the theory that favors the status quo in favor of the oppressed (Dembour 3). However, the disclose scholars believe that human rights exist because everyone talks about them.
Human rights according to Beitz, is a communication in the public ethics of world policies. He argues that every individual is the subject of the world concern and that it is everyone’s task to enact these rules (Beitz 1). Universality is a worry of whether all the human rights included can be seen as important by everyone. As such, most people tend to misuse these rules for their selfish reasons. There are different forms of skepticism in which some individuals think that there should be a form of a procedure to implement these human rights. The first skeptic clarifies that the satisfaction of some human rights is not realistic under the current social position of the world (Beitz 3). Finally, there is a skeptical concept that explains that human rights are universal. As such, the rights are relevant and are to be claimed by everyone.
Maurice, an author supports the traditional human rights, which includes the political and civil rights. However, he rejects the universal human rights, which are termed as economical and social rights that encompass pensions, holidays, insurance among others. Universality according to Cranston is a right available to everyone at all times. For instance, the right to humane treatment is a perfect example of universality. There is a test for human rights and moral uprightness. Practicability Test, clarifies that it is not a duty for an individual to do what is physically impossible (Maurice and Raphael 50). For instance, if all workers in the world should ask for holiday rights then, it would not be practicable for industries that are establishing. The test of paramount importance explains that there are rights that people can do without like the rights for holidays.
Beitz, C. The Idea of Human Rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. Print.
Dembour. M. What Are Human Rights? Four Schools of Thoughts. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press, 2010. Print.
Maurice C. and Raphael, D. Human Rights, Real and Supposed, 1967. Print.