Employees at any level many time experience a sense of frustration because low level of wages, poor working conditions, unfavourable terms of employment, inhuman treatement by their superiors & the like whereas managerial personnel feel frustrated because of alienation over their condition of employment , interpersonal conflicts, role conflicts, job pressure , lack of freedom , absence of challenging work, etc. QWL means different things to different people, J. Richard & J.
Loy define QWL as “ the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the organization.
” In the search for improved productivity, manager & executives alike are discovering the important contribution of QWL. Hackman & suttle describe QWL from varied viewpoints. From a professional view point , it refers to industrial democracy, increase workewrs participation in corporate decision making , or culmination of the goals of human realations.
In terms of management perspective, it relates to a variety of efforts to improve productivity through improvements in the human , rather than the capital or technological inputs of production.
From standpoint of the characteristics of individual workers , it refers to the degree to which members of a work organization are able to satisfy important personal needs through their experience in the organization. From the unions, perspective , it is a more equitable sharing of the income and resources of the work of organization, and more human & healthier working conditions. DIMENSIONS OF STUDY :
Quality of work life improvement are defined as any activity which takes place at every level of organization which seeks greater organizational effectiveness through enhancement of human dignity and growth ..
.. a process through which the stockholders in the organization management, union and employees- learn how to work together to better to determine for themselves what actions, changes & improvements are desirable and workable in order to achive twin & simultaneous goals of an improve quality of life at work for all members of organization & greater effectiveness for the company and unions.
Trade union claim that they are responsible for the improvements in various facilities to workers whereas management takes credit for improved salaries, benefits & facilities. However, HR manager has identified specific issues in QWL. Klott Mundick& Schuster suggested major QWL issues.
They are: (1) Pay & Employment on permanent basis: Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction. Various alternative means for providing wages should be developed in view of increase in cost of living index , increase in levels & rates of income tax & profession tax.
QWL must be build around an equitable pay programs . in future more workers may want to participate in the profits of the firm. Employment of workers on casual, temporary, probationary basis gives them sense of insecurity.
On the other hand , employment on the other basis gives them security & leads to higher order QWL. (2) Occupational Stress : Stress is a condition of strain on one’s emotions, thought process & physical condition . stress is determined by the nature of work, working condition, working hours , pause in the work schedule, worker’s abilities & nature and match with the job requirements.
Stress is cause due irritability, offering prestigious designation to the jobs, providing well furnish & decent work places, offering membership in clubs or association , providing vehicles, offering vacation trips, or means to recognize the employees hyper- excitation or depression unstable behaviour, fatigue, stuttering, trembling psychometric pains, heavy smoking & drug abuse.
Stress adversely effects on employee’s productivity. The HR manager, in order to minimize the stress has to identifiy, prevent & tackle the problem.
He may arrange the treatment of problem with the health unit or provide some stress buster activities during the hectic work schedule. (3) Organizational Health programs : Organizational health programs aim at educating employees about health problems means of maintaining & improving health etc.
These programme covers drinking and smoking cessation ( if it is affecting the productivity of employee ) , hypertension control , other forms of cardiovascular risk reduction, family planning etc.
Effective implementation of these progrme results in reduction in absenteeism, hospitalization , disability, excessive job turnover & premature death. It should also covers relaxation, physical exercise , diet control etc. (4) Alternative work schedule : Alternative work schedule including work at home , flexible working hours, staggered hours , and reduced work week, part time employment which may be introduced for the convenience & comfort of the workers as the work schedule which offers the individual the leisure time , flexible hours of work is preferred. 5) Participative Management & control of work : Trade unions and workers participation in management and decision making improves QWL .
workers also feel that they have control their work, use their skills & make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed to participate in creative and decision making process. (6) Recognition : recognizing the employee as a human being rather than as a labourer increases the QWL .