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Quality of service (qos): issues and recommendations

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The Effects Of Movement On QoS –

As the mobile device moves from a cell protected from one base station to an adjoining cell of a different base station during a connection handover takes place. This hand over time may just result in a short loss of communication which would possibly not be obvious for voice interplay however can outcomes in loss of information for different applications. For mobile computing, the base station may have to provide regional processing, storage or other services as good as communication.

Variations in link quality will additionally be caused by atmo­ circular conditions such as rain or lightning. These effects need additional refined dynamic QoS management than fixed systems.

It is therefore the variation in QoS that is that the crucial distinction between mobile systems and communications based on wired networks. This implies for adaptive QoS management that specifies a variety of acceptable QoS levels, instead of attempting to ensure specific values. The QoS management is additionally accountable for cooperation with QoS aware applications to support adaptation, instead of insulating applications from variation in underlying QoS. The effects of quality on QoS need then that algorithms utilized should be capable of managing frequent loss and reappearance of mobile device within the network, and that overhead ought to be reduced in periods of low connectivity. This is in contrast to traditional distributed applications, wherever moderately stable presence and systematically high network quality square measure usually assumed.

The Restrictions Of Portable Devices On QoS –

Portability of the mobile computing device imposed variety of problems that place limitations on QoS. The main limitation is within the physical size of mobile computers. Systems usually are designed with the limitations of batteries in mind. Current battery technology still needs appreciable area and weight for modest power reserves, and isn’t expected to become considerably additional compact in future. This then places limits on the style due to the ought to offer low power consumption as a primary style goal: low power processors, displays and peripherals, and the observe of getting systems powered down or “ sleeping” once not in active use are common measures to reduce power consumption in portable PCs (Personal computer) and PDAs (Personal digital assistant). Low power consumption elements are usually grade

of processing power below their higher consumption desktop counterparts, so limiting the complexness of tasks performed. The practice of intermittent activity might seem as frequent failures in some situations. Similarly, mobile technology needs vital power, notably for transmission, thus network association should be intermittent.

The second purpose is that of user interfaces: giant screens, large keyboards, and refined and straightforward to use pointer systems are commonplace in a desktop surroundings. These facilitate data wealthy, complicated user interfaces, with precise user management. In portable computers, screen size is reduced, keyboards are typically additional incommodious, and pointer devices less refined. PDAs have tiny, low resolution screens that are usually additional suited to text than graphics and will solely be monochrome. They have stripped miniature keyboards, and pen based mostly, voice, or easy cursor input and selection devices. These limitations in input and show technology need a considerably totally different approach to user interface style. In sush type of environments where users may use a variety of systems in different situations, the interface to applications may then be heterogeneous.

QoS management in a mobile environment should enable for scaling of delivered information, and also less complicated user interfaces once connecting using a common combination of portable devices and higher power non-portable devices [1, 6] and field of context aware computing provides groundwork during this area, wherever instead of treating the geographical context (as for mobility), one can treat the choice of end system as giving a resource context.

The Effects On Other Non-Functional Parameters –

Any style of remote access will increase security risks however wireless based mostly communication is especially likely to unseen undetected therefore mobility complicates traditional security mechanisms. Even nomadic systems can build use of less secure telephone and net based mostly communications than workplace systems using LANs. Some

Organizations might place restrictions on what knowledge or services will be accessed remotely, or need a lot of subtle security than is required for workplace systems. In addition, there are legal and moral problems rose within the observance of users’ locations.

Cost is another parameter that might be stricken by the employment of mobile communications. However, whereas wireless connections are frequently more expensive, the basic principles of QoS management in relevancy price are the same as for fixed systems. The only major extra quality is formed by the risk of a bigger range of connection, and therefore price, options, and the risk of performing accounting in multiple currencies.


Management Adaptivity– As declared within the section “ The Effects of Movement on QoS,” one of the key ideas in managing QoS for mobile environments is adaptation to changes in QoS. In the following we tend to discuss 3 categories of change that have to be catered for.

  1. Large-graine d chang e is characterized as changes due to varieties of end system, or network connection in use, generally these can vary infrequently, often only between sessions, and therefore are managed mostly at the initialization of interaction with applications, probably by suggests that of context awareness.
  1. Hideable changes are those minor fluctuations, some of that could be peculiar to mobile systems, that are sufficiently little in degree and period to be managed by traditional media aware buffering and filtering techniques. Buffering is often used to take away noise by smoothing a variable (bit or frame) rate stream to a constant rate stream. Filtering of packets could differentiate between those containing base and improvement levels of information in multimedia streams, e. g., moving from color to black and white images and are like those in fixed network systems [35]. However, as mobile systems move, connections with totally different base stations have to be set up and connections to remote servers re-routed via the new base stations. This needs moving or putting in filters for these connection, different connection could not give the same QoS as the previous one, and so the needed filter technique could differ. To manage this needs an extension of the traditional interactions for migrating connections between base stations. The choice and handover of management should realize of offered QoS, needed QoS, and the capability of the network to accommodate any needed filters. Wherever the network cannot maintain the current level of service, base stations ought to initiate adaptation in conjunction with handover [14, 41].
  1. Fine-graine d chang e are those changes that are often transient, however vital enough in vary of variation and period to be outside the range of effects that will be hidden by traditional QoS management ways. These include:
  • Environmental effects in wireless networks.
  • Other flows beginning and stopping in a part of the system so affecting resources available.
  • Changes in accessible power inflicting power management
  • Functions to be initiated, or degradation in functions like radio transmission.

These types of change should be informed with the applications involved, as they need interation between QoS management and the application for adaptation.

In several conditions it is a reasonable to assume that the wireless connection will determine the overall QoS. However, an end-to-end QoS management is still needed, specially for multicast systems, and those using the internet for their connection. The impact of price on patterns of desired adaptivity also becomes more pronounced in mobile systems, wherever connections usually have a charge per unit time or per unit data.

Adaptation paths connected with QoS management ought to be able to describe how a lot of the users are willing to pay for a certain level of presentation quality or timeliness. The heterogeneousness inherent in systems that might offer network access through more than one media also will be a issue here, as certain sorts of connection can cost more than others, and cost of connection will vary due to telecoms supplier traffic structures.

Resource Management And Reservation –

Some researchers contend that resource reservation isn’t relevant in mobile systems, as the accessible bandwidth in connections is just too extremely variable for a reservation to be meaningful. However, some resource allocation and admission control would appear reasonable once resources are scarce, even if laborious guarantees of resource provision are not practical. [44, 47] proposes that guarantees be created in admission control on lower bounds of needs, whereas providing best-effort service beyond this. This is achieved by creating advance reservation of minimum levels of resources within the next predicted cell to confirm accessibility and smooth handoff, and maintaining a portion of resources to handle unforeseen events. The issue of resource reservation is given some thought by those engaged on base stations and wired elements of mobile infrastructures, as these high bandwidth elements should be shared by several users, therefore the traditional resource management approach still applies.

Context Awareness –

A further aspect of resource management is that of large grained adaptivity, and context awareness. [49] defines situation as “ the entire set of circumstances close surrounding agent, including the agent’s own internal state” and from this context as “ the elements of the situation that ought to impact behavior. ” Context aware adaptation may include migrating data between systems as a results of mobility; dynamic a user interface to reflect location dependent information of interest; choosing a local printer or power conscious scheduling of actions in portable environments. The QoS experienced is also dependant on awareness of context, and applicable adaptation to that context [11]. A elementary paper on context awareness is [13], that emphasizes that context depends on more than location, i. e., vicinity to alternative users and resources or environmental conditions such as lighting, noise or social things. In consideration of QoS presentation, the problems with network connectivity, communications price and bandwidth, and location are obvious factors, poignant data for interactions as well as how end systems are used and user’s preferences, for instance, network bandwidth may be available to supply spoken messages on a PDA (Personal digital assistant) with audio capability, however in several situations text show would still be the most applicable delivery mechanism – speech might not be intelligible on a noisy factory floor, and secrecy is also required in conferences with customers. “ Quality” will therefore cover all non-functional characteristics of information poignant any aspect of perceived quality.


We discussed the critical issues faced by QoS in a mobile environment, the time those challenges emerged and the techniques that were put forward to tackle those challenges following literature to discussed work.

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