QC circle concept as a practical tool is the set of techniques available for analysis, discussion and feedback. Charts and diagrams displaying statistical data about actual production is one such technique. Another technique include Ishikawa chart developed by Kaora Ishikawa, director general of the Japanese quality control group.
This is also known as cause and effect diagram and is a tool to define problems as an effect or outcome and to reduce it to underlying causes. The Ishikawa cause and effect diagram is a fishboned framework to analyze the four M’s – Men, Materials, Machines and Methods. Suppose the problem concerns low productivity. This problem is analyzed by focusing on men – lack of skills, lack of training, job turnover, age of the worker, absenteeism, fatigue or workers’ attitudes. The causes of the problem could also be rooted in methods of supervision, pay structure or motivation. The Ishikawa cause and effect diagram is shown in the- following figure. Management plays an important supportive role in QC circles. Leaders of QC circles are generally rotated and often are chosen democratically.
They serve as an important linkage between ideas of lower skilled workers and the more highly motivated managerial group. Benefits of QC circles are as follows: (1) Improved human relations. (2) Individual development. (3) Leadership development (4) Work satisfaction through creativity. (5) Improved awareness of problems. (6) Strengthened team work.
(7) Improved participation. (8) Improved willingness to work and take responsibility. (9) Improved organizational climate.
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