Essay, 13 pages (3500 words)

Public speaking (midterm)

ConversationWhat from of communication has much in common with modern public speaking? 1. Public speaking is more planned than conversation.
2. Public speaking is more formal than conversation.
3. The nonverbal communication of public speakers is also more formal than nonverbal behavior in ordinary conversation
4. The physical distance between public speakers and their audience is usually greater than that between people in conversation
5. In public speaking the roles of speaker and audience are more clearly defined and remain stable than an ordinary conversationWhat are the similarities and differences between everyday conversation and public speaking? ONPUBLIC SPEAKING (MIDTERM) SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder Nowwhen audience members see the speaker and decode his or her nonverbal symbolsList and discuss the components of the visual channel of communicationeye contact(or lack of it), facial expressions, posture, gestures, and dresswhen using visual channel what are some nonverbal symbols that are used? Visual ChannelIf the speaker uses an visual aids, such as graphs or models, these are transmitted along the? visual and auditoryWhat 2 channels does a speaker use to transmit messages? Declamationthe delivery of an already famous address– and of elocusionThey can be both external and internalCan noise in the communication process be external, internal, or both? understanding different cultures is necessarythe twenty-first century of a new era in speech making, we know that? Concurrent between speaker and audienceThe sending and receiving of messages during a speech is? decodingWhen a speaker uses jargon that you dont understand, what are you experiencing? Being audience centeredConsidering your audience is at the center of the model because the needs, attitudes, beliefs, values and other characteristics of your audience influences the topic you choose and ever step of the speech making process1. adjust your topic and pattern of organization
2. Adjust your delivery style
3. Adjust your dressTo adapt to the cultural expectations of your audience, you may need to do the following: external noise. Ex: the roar of a lawn mower or a noisy air conditioneris physical, such as: Internal noise. Ex: A bad cold(physiological noise) may cloud a speaker’s memory or subdue his or her delivery, an audience member who is worried about an upcoming exam (psychological noise) is unlikely to remember what the speaker saysmay stem from either physiological or psychological causes and may directly affect either the source or the receiver. Ex:? Yes it willWill the ability to speak with competence and confidence provide empowerment? No, it is notAre slang expressions perfectly appropriate for most types of public speaking? Visual ChannelWhat is affected by a speaker’s posture and gestures? An audience-centered speakerA speaker who analyses the listener and the occasion and adapts the speech to them is defined by your text as? The attitude that one’s own cultural approach is superior to those from other culturesWhat is ethnocentrism? their socioeconomic statusA speaker who analyzes the audience’s income, occupation, and education is interested in? psychological analysisTrying to determine what an audience believes or thinks about a speech topic? genderThe culturally-based perception of self as masculine or feminine? Situational analysisAn examination by the speaker of the time and place of the speech, size of the expected audience, and the speaking occasion? attitudesIn a psychological analysis, which of the following are reflections of the audience’s likes or dislikes? beliefsIn a psychological analysis, which of the following concepts are what the audience asserts as true or false? The time and place of your speech, the size of your audience, and the occasionA situation audience analysis includes an evaluation of? a demographically analysisCollecting information about an audience concerning their age range, gender, and ethnicity is part of? Informal audience analysisobserving your audience and asking questions about them are forms of? An open-ended questionAsking a question such as ” What do you believe the state should do about funding education?” is an example of? Audience beliefs and topicsWhich of these characteristics would be examined as part of a psychological audience analysis? people who much attendanceA captive audience would best be described as? necessary as part of the complete audience-centered speakerAnalyzing and adapting to your audience as you speak is_____________________target audienceThe specific group of audience members that you, as a speaker, most wish to address or influence is your ________PhotgraphsWhat can a speaker add to his or her speech that will likely appeal to most members of a very diverse audience? nonverbal feedback from the audienceA speaker much be aware of ___________________ in order to adapt the speech as he or she speaksbeing audience-centeredConsidering the needs, interests, and expectations of listeners during the entire speech preparation process is called? general purposeSpeeches that you present will be either to inform, to persuade, or to entertain. This goal for your speech is known as its? central ideaA complete, declarative sentence that summarizes your speech is known as the? Specific purposeWhen wording the statement of your ______, use verbs that refer to observable or measurable behaviorto change or reinforce an audience’s beliefs and/or urge action(act as an advocate)The general purpose of a persuasive speech is? determining your main ideasSearching for logical divisions in a subject is a strategy for? consider the audiencewhen you find out as much abour your audience’s needs, interests, and expectations prior to selecting a topic, you are fulfilling which guidelines for selecting a topic? They have a list of topics divided into categories, and subcategoriesWhen searching for a speech topic, web directories, such as Yahoo, are helpful because? BrainstormingWhen you make a list of your own interests, and just begin writing as much topics related to these as you can think of without stopping to consider them, you are using a technique known as? Finding logical divisionsWhen you structure your speech topic into main points, based on a reasonable, appropriate progression of ideas, what aspect of organization are you accomplishing? is a single sentence summarizing your speechA properly worded central idea or thesis statement is? choose a topic of interest to youWhat technique in selecting a speech topic will best motivate both your research and delivery? AudienceThe ______ is an equally important element topic selection, in addition to the interests or knowledge of the speakerwhen scanning a Web directory like YahooMany times, something you read _____________ can generate a great idea for a speech topica ” blueprint” of a speechWhen combined with a central idea, a preview statement can form __________magazines and journalsThe term ” periodicals” refers to? the World Wide WebThe internet delivery system that brings information to your computer as text, graphics, audio, and visual images is know as? LEXIS-NEXISOne excellent full-text database that includes periodicals, newspapers, government documents, and law journals is? InterviewingDiscussing your speech topic with someone who is knowledgeable on the subjects is a method of gathering support material known as? hoer or his own personal experience and knowledgeWhat is the first source of supporting material a speaker should rely upon? The URL, or uniform resource locatorThe address of each Web site or page is known as? AccountabilityThis is considered a critical factor in evaluating Web resources-StacksLibraries collections of books are generally called? The internetWhat resource would you use in order to conduct a Boolean search? to establish a purpose or objective for the interviewWhat is the first step in preparing for an interview with someone about your speech topic? Plan possible presentation aidsOnce you have found adequate verbal sources as supporting material for a speech, what should you do, according to your text? an interviewAfter your conversation with a representative from the health and wellness program at a local hospital, you organize your notes and decide which statements to quote in your speech. This form of supporting material is termed? peview and rank themHow do you select the resources which will have the most value in preparing for your speech? Web pages or sites which are automatically linkedWhat is a hyperlink? YesIs it essential to evaluate Web resources before using them for speech research? Considering your personal experience and knowledgeWhen planning a speech, you should always begin by? Periodicals________ are more up-to-date than books, but newspapers are more current than periodicalsExtended illustrationA lengthy illustration with a plot beginning, climatic point, and enda brief illustrationA short illustration of no longer than a sentence or twoin the form of a metaphor or similieA figurative analogy is? expert testimonyWhen someone, who is a recognized authority in a specialized area, states his/her opinion, this is considered? descriptionProducing word pictures that allow your audience to mentally see, hear, smell, touch, or taste something is a process known as? explaining whyIf, as supporting material for a speech, you give reasons or causes for a policy, principle, or event, you are? when your topic is controversialWhen is it a good idea to use expert testimony in a speech? Use reputable, authoritative, unbiased sources for your statisticsWhat are important guidelines for the use of statistics in a speech? MagnitudeThe more experts who support your viewpoint and the larger the numbers you cite reflect a principle within selecting the best supporting material known as? choose and use a variety of supporting materialA skilled public speaker must learn to? Hold the attention of your audienceExplanations should have vivid and specific language in order to capture and…? set up the causes for a cause-solution speechIn explaining ” why” a speaker can? the organizational patternThe method a speaker uses to arrange her or his main ideasChronological patternThe pattern of speech rrganization used in a speech topic that progresses in order of timetopicalWhen your central idea naturally divides into various areas to be supported, the organizational patternspatialIf your speech topic concerns something that occupies physical space, the organizational pattern may be? Problem-solutionA speech topic that presents an issue that needs resolving can effectively be organized as? Problem-solution patternA speech organizational pattern which goes one step beyond cause and effect to discuss ways to alter, fix, or correct an effectHypothetical illusions, description, and opinionsWhat 3 things are considered to be soft evidencerecencyWhen you save the most important material for llastpreviewTelling the audience your main ideas before you begin to develop your speechTo keep your audience on track with your speechThe main reason to use previews, summaries, and signposts is…? enumerate your main ideasOne way to signpost your speech is toenumerate your main ideasto keep your audience on track with your speechdividing main points into sub pointsAfter speakers have organized their main points, what is the next step? integrating supporting materials smoothlywhen you state a main idea, cite the source, present the material, and then explain how the material supports the main idea, you areNonverbal signpostsA planned pause in a speech may be used asSignpostsTransitions, previews, and summaries are all examples ofNonverbal transitionA change in facial expression, a pause, an altered vocal pitch or speaking rate, or a movement all may indicate areview the logical divisions, reasons, or series of steps you identified when you narrowed your topidBefore organizing your main points, it is wise toprinciple of recencyThe _________ means that an audience will best remember your last supporting pointNote cardsUsing _____ _____ to record supporting materials, then rearranging these cards, is an efficient method of planning your speechUsing visuals as aids to verbal signposts_______________________ will improve your audience’s ability to follow your speechpreparation outlineJust as a traveler needs a map for a journey, a speaker needs a man for a speech. This detailed map of a speech is apreparation outlineThe speaker’s outline which cocntains the specific purpose, the introduction, all main ideas with supporting material, and a conclusion is amappingWriting down your main ideas, sub points, and supporting material, then using geometric shapes and arrows to indicate logical relationships is a technique known asto insure that all main ideas and sub points are clearly and logically arranged and adequately supportedThe ultimate goal of the planning period with your outline isdelivery or speaking outlineThe _____________ is shorter than the preparationuse at least 2 subdivisions, if any, for each pointWhat is one of the features of the standard outline form? everything but directions for delivering your speechWhen developing a preparation outline, you should write out..? brief and have speaking notesThe delivery outline should be..? the delivery(or speaking) outlineWhen you finally divery your speech, you should speak from the..? type or print information so that itt can be easily readWhat tip is suggested regarding the use of speaking notes? Whatever system makes sense and works best for the speakerWhat is preferable as speaking notes? Yes, notes written in the margins of a delivery outline can help a speaker adjust in the deliveryIf you are worried about speaking too fast in a speech, should you write ” slow down” type notes to yourself on your delivery outline? Yes; comments like this are effective delivery reminders on speaking notesOn the evaluations for your previous two speeches, you received a comment about a ” speedy vocal delivery” you want to make sure not to repeat that mistake on you next speaking assignment, so you write in the margins of your note cards ” slow down” is the proper for speaking notes? preparation outlineThe _________ _________ can be viewed a a map of your speechdelivery outlineThe _____ ______ should include transitions, citations, and directions for deliveryoral is more personallAllowing the speaker and audience to interact characterizes what distinction between oral and written styles of language? less formalA speaker’s ability to use shorter words and phrases characterizes what quality of oral from written language? more repetitionA speaker’s ability to state, restate and phrases characterizes what distinction of oral language? use ambiguous wordsAll of the following are effective strategies for using words except this techniqueconnotative____________ meanings of words are not normally found in the dictionaryEthnic vernaculars___________ refers to words that combine the English language with other languagesRegionalist________refers to words that reflect a speaker and audience’s geographical backgroundJargon_______ refers to words unique to a speaker’s particular hobby or professionmetaphorsWhich of the following is a figure of speech that uses an implied comparison? Similie_________ is a figure of speech comparing two things using the term ” like” or ” as” Parallelism______ occurs when 2 or more clauses or sentences have the same grammatical patternAntithesis_______ occurs when a sentence has 2 parts with parallel structures, but contrasting meaningaliteration_______ occurs when a key word or phrase gives rhythm and power to a message, making it memorablerepetition_________occurs when a consonant sound is repeated several times in a phrase, clause or sentencestandard U. S. EnglishWhen speaking to a very diverse audience, it is best to use? Oral language styles_________ tend to use more pronounspresent information so that your audience will be interested, understand and rememberThe three goals of an informative speech? teacherThe speaker in an informative speech acts as aobjectsThe type of informative speech that concerns anything you can see or touch is a speech aboutideasAn informative speech that discusses principles, concepts, and theories is classified as a speech aboutandrogogyThe ary and science of teaching adults to learnto maintain interestWhen a speaker shows the audience that the information presented will affect them directly, he or she is fulfilling which goal of information speaking? about halfOne day after a presentation, most audience members will remember? Adults like to be actively involved in the learning processThis is a generally accepted principle of adult learningDescriptionIn an informative speech, when you talk about how an object feels, how something tastes, or how an emotion feels, you are invoking the power ofconflict, action, and suspenseAn effective way to keep an audience’s attention is to tell a story. according to your text, what are elements that make a good story? to present information that the audience can understand and remember, which maintaining their interestThe primary goals of informative speaking arereportThe most common type of work-related presentation asking you how to increase sales or communicate policy or information is apublic relations speechA work-related speech in which you address an audience outside of your organization about what your group does or a special project that your group would like to support for is atoastwhen offering a brief salute to a special occasion or person, you are giving aacceptance speechA special-occasion speech in which you briefly express your heartfelt thanks is anspeech of introductionA special-occasion in speech in which one of your goals is to build another speaker’s credibility is aKeynote addressPaula is asked to deliver a speech that sets the tone for a childcare conference. What type of special-occasion speech will she give? after-dinner speechAlthough this special-occasion speech may inform or persuade, its primary goal is to entertainhyperbole______ relies upon exaggeration, and is often humerousto communicate information or polictyWhen presenting a report in your workplace, your general purpose isdeveloping a plan to counter objections and problemsIn a public relations presentation, the speaker should anticipate and prepare for criticism bybe brief and accurateWhat 2 criteria are most important when making a speech of introduction? the nominee’s qualifications for this award or officeWhen you make a speech placing someone’s name in nomination for an office or award, what should you be sure to mention? Comment on the meaning or the significance of the award to youWhen you make an acceptance speech, what is important to keep in mind? praise the graduating classWhen delivering a commencement address, the speaker shouldinformative speakerIn a speech of tribute to a person, you are essentially what kind of speaker? workplace public speakingRoutine summaries at meetings, reports to the board, sales pitches to clients, and training seminars for coworkers are all examples ofanticipate objections in the minds of your listeners and answer those objections in your speechWhen giving a public relations speech, you should.. a reference to the occasion, a brief history of the award and its significance, and the naming of the person receiving the awardThe three necessary elements for an award-presentation speech arethank the person making the presentation and the organization that person representsThe first part of an acceptance speech should be to __________ and the ____________ then, mention a few of the people responsible for your successeulogy or speech of tribute to someone who diedSome humor may be appropriate in aBeing Audience Centeredinvolves making decisions about the content and style of your speech before you speak, based on knowledge of your audience’s values and beliefs1. To Inform
2. To persuade
3. To entertainName the 3 types of general speech purposesTo informWhat type of speech is designed to teach, define, illustrate, clarify, or elaborate on a topic? The central IdeaWhat aspect of speech preparation contains the summary of your message? 1. The introduction helps captureThe conclusion summarizes your key ideas attention, serves as an overview of of the speech, and provides the audience with reasons to listen to you
2. The body presents the main content of your speech
3. What are the 3 major divisions of a speech? Specific purposea concise statement indicating what you want your listeners to be able to do when you finish your speechTo ensure logical divisions, reasons or stepsWhy is a complete outline of your speech necessary? To rehearse your speech aloud, standing just as you will when you deliver it to your audienceWhat is the best way to rehearse a speech? BeforeDoes audience centeredness begin before or after a speechThe central ideaidentifies the essence of your message. you can think of it as a one sentence summary of the speechWhen you are organizing your speechWhen should you prepare your introductions and conclusions? Ethicsare the beliefs, values, and moral principles by which people determine what is right or wrongEthical communicationfundamental to responsible thinking, decision making, and the development of relationships and communities within and across contexts, cultures, channels and mediaaccomodationThe willingness to listen to different viewpoints and understand beliefs and values other than your ownAny ethical speaker is one who has a clear, responsible goal, uses sound, evidence, and reasoning, is sensitive to any tolerance of differences, is honest and avoids plagarismWhat is speaking ethically? 1. do your own work
2. Acknowledge your sources
3. take careful notes
4. cite sources correctlyhow do you avoid plagiarism? freedom of speechWhat does the first amendment of the constitution guarantee? accommodationWhat is tolerance for differences? responsibility to speak ethicallyto speak freely must be balanced by? Ethoswhat term does Aristotle use in referring to a speakers confidencethe author, the title, and the yearWhen citing your sources orally in a speech what should you do? to manage your nervousness so that it does not create internal noise that it keeps you speaking effectivelyWhen facing public speaking anxiety what should be the goal of the speaker? 1. pupil dilatation
2. increase blood flow
3. extra adrenaline
4. increase indorphanes to block pain
5. increased heart rateList at least 3 physical change(improves your energy level and helps you function better)1. be prepared
2. be organized
3. breathe
4. make practice real
5. give yourself a mental peptalklist and explain 5 methods to reduce speech anxiety? understanding why you are nervous. you feel more nervous than you look. Your perception of the speaking event, your self image, and your self esteem interacts to create speech anxiety . what should you do to ease yourself before delivering the speechphysical changes improves your energy level and helps you function better, your heightened state of readines can actually help you speak betterhow can anxiety be useful? 125, 700we can speak ______ words per minute and listen to ___content oriented listenersa person who likes their information delivered with lots of facts and details is likely a? receiver apprehensiona listener who suffers from a fear of misunderstand or misinterpreting messages is said to have1. people oriented listeners(expressing feeling and emotions)
2. action orientation listeners(skeptical, wants evidence)
3. content orientative listeners(like facts and details)
4. time orientation listeners (like the speaker to get to the point)what are the different types of listening? receiver apprehension (use a tape recorder, take accurate notes)a fear of misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or not being able to adjust psychologically to messages spoken by others1. listen for pleasure(enjoy it)
2. listen for empathize(stop, look and listen)
3. listen to evaluate(judgement about it)
4. listen for information(listen for the details, link to major ideas)what are the 4 major listening goals? rememberwhen listeners recall ideas and information presented to themTime lagthe difference in which we speak and we processselfish listenerthe process of listening relating material to their own experiences and knownledge

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