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Psychoanalytic approach to personality

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Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality Name University Date Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality There are many notable psychologists but most of them have their own theories pertaining the different topics and the topic of personality approached by psychoanalysis, we have Freud, Alfred Adler, and Carl Jung on the list whose theories have a bit o similarities and a the same time contrast each other. These theorists developed their theories many years ago and many argue that they no longer are applicable or that there are some flaws with them. Freud is the psychologist who developed the theory of psychoanalysis and he explains that it has an effect on ones personality. To understand and be able to analyze the psychoanalytic approach to personality we must first understand the psychoanalytic theories. Psychoanalysis is Freud’s psychoanalytic theory According to Myers (2010), psychoanalysis is a theory developed by Freud on personality that attributes thoughts and actions to certain unconscious motives and conflicts. It is also a technique used in treating psychological disorders by seeing to expose and interpret conscious tensions. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory linked to the human personality was a way to derive interacting systems of the personality. Freud’s view on the human personality was one where he was it including emotions and strivings from conflicts between impulses and restraint between the person’s aggressions, pleasure-seeking biological urges (Myers, 2010). According to Freud, the interacting systems of personality can be identified as being the id, ego, and superego. The id is basically then unconscious psychic energy that strives to satisfy basic drives and runs on the pleasure principle. On the other hand we have the ego as operating on realistic principle, and making account for possible long-term pleasure over short-term pleasure. The superego is the voice of our moral conscience that forces the ego to consider not only the real but the ideal choices (Myers, 2010). Alfred Adler is considered to be a Neo-Freudian because he accepted Freud’s basic views although his disagreed on a couple aspects such as placing more importance on the conscious minds rather than the unconscious and that sex and aggression were all consuming. Alfred Adler’s psychoanalytic theory was based on his very own inferiority complex. This states that our personality and actions are based on become bigger and over coming the inferiority that existed during childhood. We would basically want to overcome the childhood feelings of inferiority (Myers, 2010). Carl Jung was also a Neo-Freudian and he too had a bit to add to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory. According to Myers, Jung believes that the unconscious contains more than just our repressed feelings and memories. He added that it should be a collective unconscious, which would be a reservoir to images gathered from our universal experiences. This attempted to explain spiritual concerns and different myths with reference to different cultures. The three psychoanalytic theories are based on Freud’s own theory but both Jung’s and Adler’s theory has additions to it while excluding the idea of sex and aggression dominating. Two characteristics that I agree with based on these theories are on the personality structure that Freud gives us. Those being the id, ego and superego. I just seem to believe these and I apply logic to it and I tend to see this everyday when I am near young kids. Also I have to agree with Adler’s inferiority complex. This theory seems to have backbone support since he developed it because of himself. The two that I did not agree with was Jung’s collective reservoir of memories being the unconscious. I don’t seem to get this because the unconscious is supposed to be something that we don’t really know about and I don’t see our memories being stored there. I also disagree with Jung’s attempt to explain inherited experiences. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory has different stages of which there are five. These are the oral stage, anal stage, phallic stage, latency stage and the genital stage. These are based on the time the child grows up. The oral stage is from birth to 18months and is focused on the pleasure centers on the moth by sucking, biting and chewing. The anal stage is from 18months to 36months and focuses on the bowel and bladder elimination and coping with demands for control. The phallic stage is from 3 years old to 6 years and it pleasure zone is the genitals and copes with incestuous sexual feelings. The latency stage is from 6 years to puberty and focuses on dormant sexual feelings. Lastly there is the genital stage from puberty on. This focuses on maturation of sexual interests (Myers, 2010). Freud developed defense mechanism against anxiety and these are repression, regression, reaction formation, projection and rationalization. Describing three of these defense mechanisms, I will use rationalization, regression, and projection. In rationalization it is all about justified actions and their results. An example of this is a student failing a course and he uses rationalization by saying that the teacher has it out for him. In regression, it’s about retreating to an earlier stage of development. An example is a college student who feels homesick while at college and longs for the comfort of his own home. Finally in projection, its about projecting what we really are on others. An example of this a liar is always on alert because he thinks that everyone is a liar like he is. These psychoanalytic theories and their approach to personality reside in the base of their theories. Freud’s id, ego and super ego say all about ones personality and how they will act depending on which system is used. Adler’s inferiority complex controls the personality by wanting to overcome the inferiority that existed during childhood. Jung’s theory tries to bring across that our personality is determined by what is the collective unconscious. They all have their own approach to personality. References Myers , D. G. (2010). Psychology . New York : Worth Publishers .

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