Personal Essay, 4 pages (800 words)

Psych-learning & personality study guide (exam 3)

Conditioningthe process of learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responsesClassical conditioningexplains how certain stimuli can trigger an autonomic response ONPSYCH-LEARNING & PERSONALITY STUDY GUIDE (EXAM 3) SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder NowOperant conditioningExplains how we acquire new voluntary actionsIvan PavlovA Russian researcher in the early 1900s who was the first research learned behavior and discovered classical conditioning (dog)Unconditioned stimulusA stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioningNeo-FruediansFollowers of Freud who developed their own competing psychodynamic theoriesInferiority complexAdler’s conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiencesPersonalityDeveloped through life and is not fixed as a childPeer influenceWas underemphasized by Frued, may be just as powerful as parental influenceGender identityDeveloped at age 5-6RepressionA rate mental response to trauma, more often high stress situations enhance memoryVerbal slipFreud said mispeaking is the subconscious release of sexual thoughtsProjective Testa personality test, such as the Rorschach or TAT, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one’s inner dynamicsHumanistic perspectiveAn explanation for behavior which suggests that humans strive for self-fulfillment and are motivated by a basic goodness. Developed originally by Carl Rogers. Self actualizationAbraham Maslow’s humanistic concept of reaching toward the best person we can be, realizing our true intellectual and emotional potentialPerson-centered perspective (people you should be surrounded by)1. Genuine
2. Acceptance, including unconditional positive regard
3. Empathy” Who am I” Universal life questionSelf conceptHas an effect on your world perspectiveBig Fivefive traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measuresConscientiousnessA personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organizedAgreeablenessA personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting. NeuroticismA personality dimension describing people with high levels of anxiety, hostility, depression, and self-consciousness. OpennessA Big Five personality trait characterized by an appreciation for fantasy, feelings, actions, ideas, values, and aestheticsExtraversiondegree of sociability; extraverts are outgoing, friendly, and people-oriented; Introverts are solitary, reserved, and unsociableMMPIthe initials of a long, detailed personality inventoryGordon Allport1897-1967; Field: trait theory of personality; Contributions: list of 11, 000 traits, 3 levels of traits-cardinal, central, and secondaryWalter MischelI am a personality theorist that argued that our personality traits are not stable but our dependent upont he situation we are in. I also created the Marshmellow testAlbert BanduraFamous for the Bobo Doll experiments on observational learning & influence in the Socio-Cognitive PerspectivePersonal Controlthe extent to which people perceive control over their environment rather than feeling helplessExternal locus of controlthe perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate. Internal locus of controlthe perception that you control your own fateLearned helplessnessThe hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. Positive psychologythe scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thriveSelf esteemA measure of how much you value and respect yourselfFirst born childrenFirst born children tend to be more intelligent than later-born siblings, which has likely nothing to do with womb environment. Middle childrenfeel treated unfairly; don’t develop close relationships to siblings; manipulators and negotiatorsYoungest childsociable, independent, spoiled, competitivePreconsciousin Freud’s theory, the level of consciousness in which thoughts and feelings are not conscious but are readily retrieveable to consciousnessIdIn Freud’s theory, the source of a person’s instinctual energy, which works mainly on the pleasure principle. Pleasure principleFreud’s theory regarding the id’s desire to maximize pleasure and minimize pain in order to achieve immediate gratification. Reality principalTendency of the ego to postpone gratification until it can find an appropriate outletPsychosexualthe childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zonesOral stageFreud’s first stage of psychosexual development during which pleasure is centered in the mouthAnal stageFreud’s second stage of personality development, from about age 2 to about age 3, during which children learn to control the immediate gratification they obtain through defecation and to become responsive to the demands of society. {poop}Phallic StageFreud’s third stage of personality development, from about age 4 through age 7, during which children obtain gratification primarily from the genitals. Latency StageFreud’s fourth stage of personality development, from about age 7 until puberty, during which sexual urges are inactive. Genital StageFreud’s last stage of personality development, from the onset of puberty through adulthood, during which the sexual conflicts of childhood resurface (at puberty) and are often resolved during adolescence). Oedipus complexaccording to Freud, a boy’s sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. Inferiority complexAdler’s conception of a basic feeling of inadequacy stemming from childhood experiencesTestabilityThe flaw in Frieda data because it was based off of his own self analysisActualization tendancy(Carl Rogers) innate drive to maintain and enhance the human organismSelf conceptA sense of one’s identity and personal worthSocial cognitive theoryTheory that holds that portions of an individual’s knowledge acquisition can be directly related to observing others within the context of social interactions, experiences, and outside media influences (Bandura). Reciprocal determinismthe interacting influences of behavior, internal cognition, and environmentTrait theoryA theory of personality that focuses on identifying, describing, and measuring individual differences in behavioral predispositionsFive factor modelOpenness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism

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