Essay, 36 pages (9000 words)

Most important world famous educationists theology religion


  • 7. 3 Role in Planning and Planing the National Education Policy of the State

Plato and Rousseau are the most of import universe celebrated educationalists who have contributed much to the promotion of human civilisation. Present instruction system of the universe stands on both the above minds.

Plato ‘ s educational doctrine was grounded in his celebrated work ‘ The Republic ‘ , ‘ The Laws ‘ wherein the person was best served by being subordinated to a merely society. Rousseau wrote in his book ‘ Emile ‘ , ‘ Discourse of Political Economy ‘ , ‘ The New Heloise ‘ and ‘ Considerations on the Government of Poland ‘ .

In maintaining in head the doctrines, thoughts of Plato and Rousseau on instruction theory discussed supra, this survey focuses on the similarities and unsimilarities between these two philosophers portion in respect of doctrine of instruction. It besides aims at happening out the influences among the instruction theories of Plato and Rousseau have on modern-day and succeeding coevalss. All over the universe in general, and at mensurating the influences reflected in planning and planing the national instruction policy in Bangladesh in peculiar.

1. 2 Rationale of the Study

This research is chiefly for garnering cognition. Every motion or societal state of affairs has a chronology. Without understanding this chronology, it is hard to understand the current state of affairs of that motion. Plato and Rousseau ‘ s Education theories contributed much to the redemption of their state work forces which is truly applaudable. Their theoretical and practical attempts helped to interrupt the long standing superstitious notions, blind religion and absurd thoughts. This survey will be a affair of great instruction for the present and succeeding coevalss that will carry through the cognition spread bing in this country. Their realistic and useful positions on instruction surely will play an effectual function in fixing modern citizens fit for modern universe. The investigated information drawn from the comparative survey on the instruction theory of Plato and Rousseau in planning and designing can be used in the preparation of national instruction policy of our state.

1. 3 General Objective of the Study

The general aim of the survey is to –

Analyze a comparative survey on the educational theory of Plato and Rousseau.

1. 4 Specific Aims of the Study

The specific aims of the survey are to –

Assess, evaluate and compare the doctrine of instruction developed by Plato and Rousseau.

Find out the influence of their doctrine of instruction on modern-day and succeeding coevalss.

Assess the function of Philosophy of Plato and Rousseau in planning and planing the national instruction policy in our state.

1. 5 Research Questions of the Study

What did Plato and Rousseau mean by doctrine of instruction?

What roles did Plato and Rousseau drama to the development of the doctrine of instruction?

What influences did the doctrines of instruction of Plato and Rousseau have on the modern-day philosophers and minds?

What are the consequences to be drawn from the comparative survey between the doctrines of instruction of Plato and Rousseau?

What roles of doctrine of Plato and Rousseau in planning and condescending the national instruction policy in our state?

1. 6 Definition of Key Footings


Etymologically, the word instruction is derived from Educare ( Latin ) “ convey up ” , which is related to Educere “ convey out ” , “ convey Forth what is within ” , “ convey out possible ” and Ducere “ to take ” ( Source www. etymonline. com/index. php? term= educate ; video. ted. com/talks/podcast/AimeeMullins_2009p. mp4 ) .


Some societal research workers have meant by theory particular thoughts such as- construct, frame of mention, conceptual strategy, position, hypothesis, generalisation, ideal type, paradigm, typology etc. ( Alam, 1993, p. 107 )

Education theory

Educational theory may mention to either bad educational idea in general or to a theory of instruction as something that guides, explains or describes educational pattern.


Doctrine is the survey of general and cardinal jobs connected with being, cognition, values, ground, head and linguistic communication.

1. 7 Scope of the Study

This research will cover Plato and Rousseau ‘ s ideas along with the Major Hagiographas on them. Available information on them from Magazines and newspapers of that clip are besides used to happen out their existent doctrine of instruction. We shall discourse their doctrine of instruction along with the ideas of other philosophers who have contributed much to the development of instruction in modern society. We shall absorb the thoughts of Plato and Rousseau with the thoughts of other philosophers of instruction. In this manner the research worker would do a comprehensive survey on the doctrine of instruction.

1. 8 Restrictions of the Study

The survey would be chiefly based on printed paperss such as assorted articles, essays, diaries, books and research works done on the comparative survey on the educational theory of Plato and Rousseau. Concurrently all information from persons related to the present survey needs more clip and money. There are merely few research work conducted on the issue and really few articles might be published on the diaries but the research worker did non happen any research work on that issue in Bangladesh.

Chapter 2: Reappraisal of Literature

Reviewing literature means survey of other literatures for happening out the research spread. So far as the research worker has surveyed, this is a new field to analyze. The research worker has gone through all the Hagiographas of Plato, every bit good as good figure of books written on him such as: ‘ The Republic ‘ , ‘ Laws ‘ etc. The research worker besides reviewed books written by Rousseau. These are: Emile, Discourse on Equality, A discourse on political Economy, Social contract etc. Here, the research worker has presented some surveies related to Plato and Rousseau ‘ s instruction theory by different research workers like Patricia M. Lines, Pinioning the Imagination: Education for Virtue in Plato and Rousseau. Many facets of Plato ‘ s recommendations for instruction resemble those adopted by constitutional democracies in different states. Harmonizing to him education must be mandatory and free to all, with authorities control and support. Plato identified four interdependent virtuousnesss ( Wisdom, Courage, Discipline and Justice ) as indispensable to be ideal in ‘ The Republic ‘ . Wisdom guides the philosopher-ruler. Courage moves the aides ( the soldiers and the administrative officials ) . Discipline, sometimes translated as moderateness, assures that each category carries out its assigned function and that the governed obey the governors. Justice- the supreme telling principle-ensures harmoniousness and balance within the person and the province. These virtuousnesss should take to a full apprehension of the Truth, the Good and the Beautiful, which harmonizing to Plato is the highest world. Like Plato, Rousseau aims at making an ideal citizen. Unlike Plato, he wants to fix this citizen for democracy. Rousseau regards virtuousness as the ultimate end of instruction. He offers a simple regulation. Emile the ‘ Hero ‘ in his book must ne’er harm another. To accomplish this end, the coach isolates the kids from others. Both Plato and Rousseau offer a limited position of virtuousness. Still, both reveal a certainty that they to the full understand and know how to promote the right virtuousnesss. ( www. amazon. com/shackling-immagination-education-rousseau-humanitas/dp/b0043uonp08 ) Samuel Scolnicov, ‘ Plato on Education as the Development of Reason ‘ . Plato stresses his Socrates ‘ new construct of ground ( nous ) . Reason is non a tool for achieving ends independently thought worthwhile: ownerships, award, personal and political success ; instead, reason itself, expressed in the giving of grounds and the turning away of contradictions, confers value to ends and sentiments. The ultimate educational aim, so, is to convey about a revolution in the scholar ‘ s perceptual experience of the function of ground, viz. the acknowledgment of its normative, and non simply theoretical or instrumental nature. Plato ‘ s theory of instruction purposes at stipulating the conditions of the growing of the Socratic adult male, whose psyche is free from contradictions and whose excellence is justified cognition. ( www. bu. edu/wcp/papers/Anci/Anciscol. htm ) Farhan Zainulabideen, ‘ A Critical Review of the Aims of Education in the Western Tradition ‘ . Plato is the earliest of import mind on instruction. He is besides the first to hold laid down a comprehensive mentality of instruction that was integrated with his positions of society and its purposes. In Republic, Plato ‘ s primary purpose of instruction is to bring forth the elites needed to regulate the ideal metropolis. The supreme merchandise of the instruction procedure is the philosopher-king who regulations the metropolis. The highest purpose of instruction for Plato is the cognition of good, which in bend instills the four great virtuousnesss: wisdom, bravery, subject and justness. Jean-Jacques Rousseau ‘ s rational scope and accomplishments are reeling. He made epoch-making parts to political theory, literature and instruction. His educational piece of land, ‘ Emile ‘ , transformed the argument about kids upbringing and was really mostly instrumental in changing the Western perceptual experience of childhood. He overturned conventional wisdom on the nature of childhood and instruction with a extremist discourse in this fictional novel. The basicss of Rousseau ‘ s educational credo are ‘ nature ‘ and ‘ freedom ‘ . He believed that kids should develop their accomplishment and capacity in nature and enjoy freedom. This end in instruction was really the first measure in guaranting a more societal society, where natural jurisprudence is seen to carry through harmoniousness and balance and to acquire rid of unreal man-imposed coercive limitations ( http//www. ips. org. pk/education/IIII-acriticalreviewoftheaimsof instruction ) .

Plato was disturbed by status of society, its corruptness and shallow-dreams. In his celebrated work ‘ The Republic ‘ , Plato tried to learn Good and beauty to his pupils ( Lee, 1987, p. 161 ) . Jean-Jacques Rousseau convinced that work forces and adult females had lost their worth that can be revived in natural phenomena so that we might larn to populate together in ways that foster a better moralss of citizenship ( Bloom, 1979, p. 25 ) . Rousseau believes that the primary end of instruction is to fix work forces and adult females to be moral agents who, while populating autonomously, besides live with each other.

Many researches have been done on assorted facets of Plato and Rousseau. But no research has yet been done on the job of instruction theory of Plato and Rousseau. So there may be some spread in this field. For this ground this job may be an of import issue of a research work. The present survey is such an effort.

Chapter 3: Methodology

The methodological analysis of the present research is descriptive and qualitative. By and large descriptive research is done on instruction related job, academic determination devising, planing program, altering the course of study and etc. ( Samad, 2010, p. 21 ) Qualitative research is done on some qualitative events or subjects ( that are related with quality ) . Qualitative research is really of import particularly in behaviourism. Because through instruction the personality of a adult male alterations. ( Tapan, 1987, p. 21 )

The chief feature of the descriptive research is to supply sensible account of the subject through informations analysis. So it is found that descriptive research non merely includes the description of the event or situation/state/condition but besides includes comparative treatment, categorization, account and rating. ( Ali, 1988, p. 19 ) In a descriptive research a research worker does non command the information. Merely the procedure of observation, description and analysis of informations can be controlled. ( Zaman, 1987, p. 7 )

Aristotle for the first clip used deductive method in instance of showing descriptive method through statement and after a century subsequently Francis Bacon used the direct experimental method. This method is known as inductive method. In this method informations are collected consecutive from every field and determination is made. Inductive method is from peculiar to general. On the other manus, deductive method is from general to particular. ( Zaman, 1987, p. 11, 12 )

So, Qualitative and Descriptive method tantrums good in carry throughing the present research survey from the choice of the stuffs till the completion of the research work. It includes the aggregation of stuff go forthing no spread in the affiliated facets of the survey, the scanning of the stuffs, their systematisation and synchronism so that clear vision becomes evident to finish the thesis. Furthermore, this method besides covers, while composing the thesis, the statements in favour of and against the job raised and so confirmation of powerful sentiment with convincing groundss and statements. First the information has been collected from primary and secondary beginnings. The Hagiographas of Plato and Rousseau have been considered as the Primary informations ( Plato: ‘ The Republic ‘ and ‘ The Laws ‘ . Rousseau: ‘ Emile ‘ , ‘ Discourse of Political Economy ‘ , ‘ The New Heloise ‘ , and ‘ Considerations on the Government of Poland ‘ ) and the Hagiographas on Plato and Rousseau published in assorted books, diaries, article and research plants have been considered as the Secondary information. The research worker has identified the contradiction carefully among educational theory of Plato and Rousseau keeping rigorous objectiveness to carry through the purposes and intent of the present survey. The collected informations have been analyzed in order to happen out the similarity and unsimilarity between Plato and Rousseau and by their thought what sort of doctrine developed and influenced the wining coevalss. The research worker has used the logical analysis for informations analysis. The research worker has followed the American Psychological Association ( APA ) codification and behavior for utilizing the mention.

Chapter 4: Plato

Plato ‘ s Doctrine of Education

Plato ‘ s educational doctrine was grounded in his vision of the ideal ‘ The Republic ‘ , ‘ The Laws ‘ wherein the person was best served by being subordinated to a merely society. “ Plato proposes a exhaustive communism for the defenders, and ( I think ) besides for the soldiers, though this is non really clear. The defenders are to hold little houses and simple nutrient ; they are to populate as in a cantonment, dining together in companies ; they a rhenium to hold no private belongings beyond what is perfectly necessary ( Russell, 1946, P. 127 ) . ” Socialism is now out-dated in the present universe. Most of the people in the universe now believe in single freedom. The system that Plato has talked about for philosophers with a position to constructing an ideal province is non effectual in most of the states including Bangladesh.

The Educational Theory of Plato

Plato ‘ s Theory of instruction was an indispensable necessity for world. It was a positive redress for the jobs and operation of justness in an ideal province. Rousseau says, Plato ‘ s Republic ‘ is non a work on civil orders but the finest treatise on instruction that has of all time been written. Nothing was more of import to Plato in human life as instruction. He considers education the greatest thing in human life as he mentions in his celebrated book ‘ The Republic ‘ , ‘ the one great thing ” .

Major thoughts in Plato ‘ s educational theory are

Education for all: Plato would educate every male child and miss to the bounds of their abilities.

State instruction: Education should be provided by the province, non by parents.

Plato ‘ s suggestion was that the province will take the duty of educating the whole state has been accepted in most of the states. But it is non still decently implemented in Bangladesh because of her scarceness of fund and inability of parents but the state is seeking to educate her all kids.

Purposes of Education

“ To bring forth future civil retainers for the province.

To bring forth virtuous, efficient and rational swayers for the state.

To laud bravery and military accomplishment among the warriors.

To develop competent, obedient, and temperate workers.

To develop a societal temperament among all citizens.

Virtue is cognition and instruction is the chief thing to get virtuousness. ” ( Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 269 )

“ It ( Plato ‘ s theory of instruction ) is an effort to bring around a mental malady by mental medical specialty ( Barker, 1967, P. 314 ) . ”

Component of Plato ‘ s Education System

The first thing should be considered in instruction, which is divided into two parts-


‘ Music ‘ used in wide term for play, history, art, letters, doctrine, oratory and music in existent term. “ Music means everything that is in the state of the Muses ( Russell, 1946, P. 126 ) . ” Plato had made Protagoras speak of kids ‘ s preparation in music as presenting beat and harmoniousness into their psyches and holding a socializing influence ; ‘ for the whole life of adult male bases in demand of beat and harmoniousness ‘ . ‘ Music ‘ is about every bit broad as what we should name ‘ culture ‘ ( Cornford, 1941, p. 86 ) . Music is non taught as a compulsory topic in our state as it was advocated by Plato. Nevertheless there are single sections of Music and Theatre in public universities where pupils with particular involvements can analyze music.


“ Acrobatic means physical preparation and fittingness ” ( Russell, 1946, p. 126 ) . ‘ Gymnastics ‘ is slightly wider than what we call ‘ athletics ‘ . The physical preparation suited for a citizen soldier is briefly contrasted with that of the professional jock. Finally, it appears that physical preparation, no less than instruction in literature and the humanistic disciplines, truly has to make with the psyche ( Cornford, 1941, p. 90 ) . Physical exercising is non taught as a compulsory topic in our state as it was advocated by Plato. But there are single sections of Physical Exercise in public universities where pupils with particular involvements can analyze physical exercising. Physical exercising is of paramount importance in Bangladesh Army. In every establishment in Bangladesh there is a class on physical exercising which is compulsory in military establishments merely. Plato writes in his book ‘ The Republic ‘ . I believe, acrobatic, for the organic structure, and music for the head.

The Curriculum of Plato ‘ s Education System

Plato define different phases for the organisation and course of study

Primary Education: Primary instruction chiefly consisted of reading and authorship ( ‘ Grammatic ‘ ) ; larning and declaiming heroic poem and dramatic poesy, lyre-playing and singing lyric poesy, the basicss of arithmetic and geometry ( ‘ Music ‘ ) ; and athletic exercisings ( ‘ Gymnastic ‘ ) ( Cornford, 1941, p. 65 ) . Co-education at primary degree till the age of 18 years. The age that Plato has advocated for primary instruction is non wholly accepted in our state. Rather it is confined within 6 to 11 old ages. In our state primary instruction is free and compulsory. The compulsory primary instruction jurisprudence what Plato has talked about has been passed in Bangladesh in 1992.

Military Training: After simple instruction two old ages of Physical instruction should be given to them and be selected for higher instruction to fix for the future defenders of the province.

Military instruction is non mandatory in our state as Plato has proposed. It is merely mandatory for those who are physically fit and interested in taking military preparation.

Higher Education: Higher instruction should be given from 20 to 35 old ages of age. At this phase a pupil will analyze mathematics, arithmetic, geometry, solid geometry, uranology, harmonics, dialectic, plan of surveies, literature and doctrine. Subsequently on he would be fit for a minor administrative place to acquire experience for the hereafter more of import government places. ( Cornford, 1941, p. 230 ) .

Our instruction system is non really drawn-out as Plato has advocated. In our state one can come in into any profession after finishing one ‘ s higher instruction or can analyze for acquiring M. Phil and Ph. D grade.

Plato has divided his educational course of study into two degrees. They are as follows:

Primary degree of instruction

Higher degree of education/ Higher instruction.

Primary Education

First phase ( 0-06 )

Up to 6 old ages kids will be provided with instruction to boom his/her latent endowments. Meanwhile they will be taught niceness, idiosyncrasy and good gustatory sensation.

Second phase ( 06-18 )

From 6 to 18 old ages kids will be taught merely literature, music, and preliminary instruction on mathematics. Meanwhile kids will be able to achieve the great qualities such as self-denial, disciplinary, promptness, and the belief on the God.

Third phase ( 18-20 )

Age from 18 to 20 old ages will be fixed for pupils ‘ physical exercising and military instruction. There will be no opportunity to learn any other topic within this clip. The chief intent of this phase is to maintain organic structure fit and strong. Those who will win in the trial at the terminal of the primary degree will acquire the chance of having higher instruction.

Higher instruction

First phase ( 20-30 )

This phase covers from 20 to 30 old ages. In this phase human existences will get cognition on star divination, higher math, geometry, and music. In this phase they will be taught really carefully on these topics and there will be an effort to set up the relationship between math and world.

Second phase ( 30-35 )

This phase ranges from 30 to 35 old ages. In this phase pupils will be taught doctrine, logic and metaphysics etc.

Third phase ( 35-50 )

This phase covers the clip from 35 to 50 old ages. In this phase the pupils will get practical cognition by uniting their acquired cognition and their existent life experience, and they will be vested with little duties of the province ( Talukder and Awal, 2011, p. 95, 96 ) . Plato classified the phases of instruction 2500 hundred old ages ago which has been adopted and otherwise categorized in four phases to run into the demands of the modern clip. These phases are primary instruction, secondary instruction, higher secondary instruction and higher instruction.

Plato ‘ s View on Women Education

Plato besides gives accent on adult females instruction and he prescribes the same sort of instruction for adult females like work forces. Womans should hold the same physical and educational preparation ; they should cognize the art of war. The chief purpose of Plato was that each member of the society should set about his work and duties. Plato believed that adult females are equal to work forces and in some instances adult females are physically weaker than work forces or may non. He suggested that those who are equal to work forces should be allowed to larn the same thing like work forces. In his book ‘ The Republic ‘ Plato describes how male and female receive the same instruction and be given the same responsibilities in society. Thus the male and the female should be given the same responsibility of ‘ The Republic ‘ . ( Cornford, 1941, p. 141 ) Plato ‘ s sentiment sing adult females instruction has received the attending of the people of all over the universe and the present universe has accepted the thoughts of Plato. It has besides been accepted in Bangladesh which has tremendously enriched the state. As a consequence, there is seen the authorization of adult females common people. Plato ‘ s sentiment about adult females instruction has been received about in many states in the present universe. The result of adult females instruction is as we see that many adult females, the Prime Minister, foreign curate, resistance party leader are in assorted of import places in Bangladesh.

Teaching Methods

Plato suggested different ways to educate the kids such as through stating narratives, drama and imitation. Plato gives importance to nursery instruction, he thinks nursery instruction plays a critical function in the instruction of adult male ; it helps to construct his moral character and province of head “ The most of import portion of instruction is proper preparation in the baby’s room.

Enforced exercising does no injury to the organic structure, but enforced acquisition will non remain in the head. ( Nath, 1979, p. 57 ) In our state Plato ‘ s stuff for instruction is used for the development of instruction. Besides, multimedia projector and ocular sound system are used in higher degree educational establishments, and maps, charts and theoretical accounts in primary degree.

Plato ‘ s View on Moral Ethical motives

Plato presents his thoughts for an ideal society in the ‘ The Republic ‘ and he provided inside informations about the course of study and system of instruction. Harmonizing to Plato the ideal society should care for their young person and the defenders would be responsible for the moral instruction of their kids. Every individual would cognize his responsibility and his duty. ( Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 269 ) Plato talked about moral instruction in 427 BC, which is of paramount importance still in the position of Bangladesh. We teach our kids moral lessons from the really get downing which is started by the parents, grampss and grandmas. Moral establishments are besides imparted to the pupil by their instructors in the schools, colleges and universities. Besides these, moralss is included in many subjects in our state. Moral impairment is really acute in everyplace. The lone manner to acquire rid of this job is to pattern or nourish moral instruction decently.

Chapter 5: Rousseau

Rousseau ‘ s Doctrine of Education

Rousseau ‘ s doctrine of instruction is called the doctrine of Naturalism. Rousseau ‘ s doctrine of life and society has been reflected in his doctrine of instruction. Proper instruction is achieved through the apprehension of natural objects and beauties. In this system, nature itself is the instructor. Harmonizing to Rousseau, kids will larn from three kinds of instructors such as nature, human being and objects. Having influenced and taught by this three beginnings is called an educated adult male by Rousseau. We can command human being and objects. But we can non command nature. So instruction should be confined to the regulations of nature. “ Go back to the lap of nature ” this thought is closely associated with Rousseau. In his book ‘ Emile ‘ , ( Nurnobi, Fouzia and Champa. , 2006, p. 277 ) he used nature in three senses. Psychological Nature, Physical Nature, Biological Nature

Rousseau ‘ s positions on the purpose of instruction

Rousseau opines that the purpose of instruction is non merely to get cognition but besides to assist flourishing of kids ‘ s endowments.

The purpose of instruction for kids will be different on the footing of its age. In childhood, instruction should construct up its physical development. There is no demand of moral and societal instruction.

The instruction in boyhood should take at the exercising of animal and mental development.

The intent of female instruction should be fixing a adult female tantrum for her male opposite number. Excessive acquisition is non necessary for the womenfolk. ( Dali and Imam, 1999, p. 42 )

Curriculum of Rousseau

The instruction course of study of Rousseau is non definite and good planned. Rousseau launched a war against the conventional instruction. So he was against the traditional course of study. Rousseau did non like reading books. He said, ‘ Books teach us to speak about something on which we have no practical cognition. ‘ However, he selected the fresh ‘ Robinson Crusoe ‘ as mandatary for Emile. Harmonizing to him, this book can assist Emile to be self-assured and self-sufficing. Harmonizing to course of study, physical exercising and wellness instruction have been given much accent in adolescence. Importance has besides been given on the humanistic disciplines of manus made goods and vocational plants. He has besides talked about spiritual and moral instruction. But he was against Female instruction. Household jobs will be larning undertakings of adult females. Rousseau ‘ s instruction related course of study is non precise and good planned. ( Uddin and Das, 2006, p. 247, 248 )

His instruction system which he advocated about 200 old ages ago is non to the full consistent with the go outing instruction course of study of Bangladesh. Nevertheless, the entreaty and the necessity of his instruction about nature are still effectual. For illustration, fresh laureate poet Rabindranath Tagore has established Shanty Nike ton in the thick of nature. Even in Bangladesh, Rajshahi, Chittagong, and Jahanggirnagor universities are established in the thick of natural beauties so that pupils and instructors can larn from nature.

Teaching manner of Rousseau

His learning method was imaginative. In this method, a kids is kept in the topographic point of innovation. A kids learns through the procedure of scrutiny. ( Dali and Imam, 1999, p. 43 ) In fact, through the procedure of Rousseau ‘ s believing research lab method, innovation method, instruction through work, animal experience method were emerged.

Rousseau ‘ s find method of acquisition is relevant to the bing originative method of Bangladesh. Because in the originative method, there is ever a conundrum or a narrative where pupils are to detect or happen out the replies.

Educational Model

“ Rousseau suggested two types of instruction model based on different conditions

First, instruction model for a province and society

Second, instruction for continuing endurance of civilisation

Phases of Education in Emile

He divided instruction systems in five phases. Such as-

Phase 1 Infancy ( 0-5 ) : Education in babyhood must be based on build so that the limbs of a kids should be developed proportionately. No demand to develop any wont at this clip. He said “ A kids is bad because he is weak ; do him strong and he will be good. ” Everything is good as it leaves the custodies of the Author of things ; everything degenerates in the custodies of adult male ( Bloom, 1979, p. 37 ) .

Phase 2 The age of Nature ( 5-12 ) : No peculiar traditional instruction should be given now. No instruction on linguistic communication, history, geographics demands to be provided now. Even spiritual instruction is non necessary. Rousseau said, “ Exercise the organic structure, the variety meats, the senses and powers, but maintain the purling follow every bit long as you can. ” ( Cited in Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 313 ) .

Phase 3 Pre-adolescence ( 12-15 ) : Before adolescence a kids needs non to read any particular book. In this phase, Rousseau has advised to include physical lesson or any kind of instruction related to art and civilization so that he can develop a sense of regard towards Labour ( Dali and Imam, 1999, p. 43 ) .

Phase 4 Puberty ( 15-20 ) : Rousseau has advised to get down societal instruction in this phase. Here kids can develop a wont of societal duty, co-operation, regard, love, and fellow feeling. Rousseau said, ‘ we are born twice one time for bing and once more for loving ; one time for the species and once more for sex ‘ . ( Cited in Bhuiyan, 2010, p. 317 )

Phase 5 Adulthood ( 20-25 ) : The grownup ‘ Emile ‘ is introduced to his ideal spouse, Sophie. The concluding undertaking of the coach is to ‘ instruct the immature twosome in their matrimonial rights and responsibilities ‘ . ( Boyd, 1911, p. 130 )

5. 11 Rousseau ‘ s View on Women Education

Rousseau has negative sentiment about adult females instruction, which is the consequence of his experiences in his personal and household life. His attitude towards adult females instruction is non accepted by any modern province of the universe. A state can non thrive maintaining half of the population uneducated. So Rousseau ‘ s attitude towards adult females instruction is wholly unacceptable and unrealistic in the modern position. This is a immense drawback of his doctrine of instruction.

Expart 1 said that “ Rousseau has proposed to maintain adult females under male domination for kids bearing because adult females become inactive in that clip ; harmonizing to Rousseau, this is the chief ground of non giving the domination of adult females over work forces. There is another ground behind this that is the male parent has to be certain of the true individuality of the new born kids. This is the secret of Rousseau of non accepting the equality of work forces and adult females. Rousseau has been affected by the fright of adult females from the civilisation ; he has seen adult females as oblique. In a verse form Rousseau says about adult females, ‘ Enchanter and unsafe whom I worship and detestaˆ¦who transform male into slaves ‘ . ”

Expart 2 said that “ Rousseau has devalued the freedom and morality of adult females because Rousseau considers adult females as female non male. To Rousseau work forces are powerful and active and adult females are weak and inactive. So adult females will be under male laterality because the male are powerful. To Rousseau populating under the powerful one is the regulation of nature. ”

Chapter 6: Influence of Plato and Rousseau on other Philosophers


Harmonizing to Aristotle primary mission of instruction was to bring forth good and virtuous citizens. All who have meditated on the art of regulating worlds have been convinced that the destiny of imperiums depends on the instruction of young person. Aristotle following the way of Plato planned and designed his program of instruction. He preseribed that instruction should be cultivated and controlled by the province. ( Rahman, 2008, p. 108, 109 )

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath has close affinity with Plato and Rousseau ‘ s vision sing instruction system. In 1918, Tagore established Visva-Bharati ( University ) at Santiniketan. After few old ages in 1922, he besides established the institute of Rural Reconstruction in the same country ; which subsequently on called Sriniketan with the engagement of L. K. EImhirst.

Tagore was influenced by the thought of Tapobon Like Rousseau he established a school in a natural ambiance which he called Tapobon. His Scheme of instruction is given below

A close propinquity to nature away from the noise and absolute of the urban life ;

A close relationship between Guru and the disciple – in about a household like atmosphere ;

A pursuit to accomplish higher truth – something that was hinted in different Upanishadicterts of ancient India ( Tagore, 2010, p. 12, 13 ) .

Tagore ‘ s ideas on Women Education

Like Plato, Tagore realized the demand of adult females instruction for their authorization and for the advancement and development of the state. Women ‘ s authorization is possible through proper instruction, which he urged in his educational essay, ‘ Strishiksha ‘ ( Female Education ) , ab initio published in the diary Sabuj Patra and subsequently translated as ‘ The Education of Women ‘ in August 1915 ( O’Connell, 2010, p. 85 ) .

Chapter7: Analysis and Discussion

7. 1 Assessment, Evaluation and Comparison

Plato has established his doctrine of instruction based on his doctrine of life and idea. His theory of instruction is found good organized in ‘ The Republic ‘ and ‘ The Laws ‘ . The chief intent of these two books was to compose doctrine of instruction suited for trying to set up equality in the society.

Though there are many unfavorable judgments against Plato, this must be kept in head that duologues of Plato are valuable plus in the universe library and ‘ The Republic ‘ is the best among all of his duologues. It can be said that if person reads merely ‘ The Republic ‘ , he can hold the whole of Plato. We know non merely about metaphysics ( Philosophy ) , divinity, moralss, and psychological science but besides about instruction, province policy and art in this authorship. The jobs that we face in this authorship are non uncommon to this modern universe. Modernism is really conspicuous in Plato ‘ s theory of equality, socialism, feminism, population control and sound population. Nietzsche ‘ s theories of moralss and nobility, Rousseau ‘ s theory of instruction policy and natural universe, Bergson ‘ s theory of life force and Freud ‘ s psychological science are at the same time present in The Republic. In a word, is anything absent in this authorship? No, everything is seeable.

In 386 BC Plato established his educational establishment ( Plato ‘ s Academy ) in the metropolis, Athens. Though straight he was non successful in transforming Athens into his fanciful ideal province, he started learning his students and adherents on doctrine, mathematics and jobs and personal businesss of province. He believed that if the immature coevals would hold been taught in his academy, they would go the swayers of province, as a consequence the crisis of Grecian society and civilisation would be solved. This theory and idea are straight noticeable in ‘ The Republic ‘ . Probably Plato wrote this book before set uping his academy.

But societal and political issues have besides been discussed in ‘ The Republic ‘ . ‘ The Republic ‘ is divided into 10 chapters. The provinces that Plato has discussed in the Chapter 8 and Chapter 9 as different to the ideal province are the illustrations of the Grecian States. ( Not merely the crude types of Grecian provinces but besides modern types of provinces are seeable in this treatment. ) Again, societal and political facets of province have been discussed in Chapter 2, Chapter 3 and Chapter 4. ( The primary construction of a province, developing province, the compulsory qualities of swayers, the categorization of citizens in a province, the personal wealth of swayers and familial relationship etc. ) But besides in this treatment Plato has placed much accent on internal policy among these things, non on the elaborate description of any illustrations. In the remainder of the book, Plato has discussed justness, instruction, doctrine, poesy and immortality of psyche.

Plato ‘ s thought of justness is non discussed in any peculiar chapter. The thought of justness is to be perceived in the whole book. To Plato justness is non like a peculiar quality of a province or individual such as clemency, illustriousness, bravery and cognition. Justice is the relation of integrity among different necessary plants, elements or qualities, organisations, parts or categories.

Chiefly in crude clip, the theory of equality was non new to Plato ( though in a limited manner ) . Rather Plato ‘ s proposal of allowing adult females bask the equal installations in the province and societal personal businesss like work forces in the so male dominated society where adult females were treated inferior to male opposite numbers should be considered more baronial and broad.

Harmonizing to Plato, instruction will get down with the instruction of the truth of divinity. The kids will be taught this instruction through fabulous narratives. But the capable affairs of these narratives should be presented in a good manner. If the characters of Gods and heroes are non presented in a proper manner, these will hold a bad impact on the head of the kids. The character of Gods portrayed in any signifier such as heroic poems, laments, play should be attractively presented. Because what is beautiful can non be harmful to the kids. The kids will be encouraged to demo regard to Gods, to their parents, and to brothers through narratives and Hagiographas. In this respect Plato has forbidden reading of Homer and Hesiod. Because in their authorship sometimes Gods have been presented as angry, express joying and rummy. These qualities will hold a bad consequence on the soft head of the kids. The Gods should be portrayed in such a manner that they are honorable and true in their word and action.

The things that have been forbidden in ‘ The Republic ‘ have besides been forbidden in ‘ The Laws ‘ . There will be fixed regulations and system for analyzing literature. No poet will be allowed to compose anything against the province, justness and norms. What the province idealizes should be reflected in the authorship of the poet. Plato has given much accent on comedy than calamity. Many of import things can be understood with laughter through comedy. He besides says that calamity should non be used for instruction. If any poet writes anything tragic, foremost he will hold to take permission from any province magistrate. In respect of discoursing the instruction procedure Plato has recommended in the Chapter 10 that a pupil should be educated as attorney than a great adult male. Again in ‘ The Laws ‘ he has recommended that a pupil should be brought up a instrumentalist and poet instead than a attorney.

In ‘ The Laws ‘ he gives more accent on the female instruction. Here besides he says that both work forces and adult females will hold the equal chance of instruction. They will be helped to turn in the unfastened environment of the province. But he was non in support of co-education. However the adult females will hold to make physical exercising, and pattern music like work forces.

The instruction proposed in ‘ The Laws ‘ will get down from the cradle. The kids will be brought up under the supervising of nurses. If the kids do non walk in clip, there will be slow growing of them. Even the kids should be made to play different dramas and games for physical development through dance and music. Plato besides says that the kids will be taught in different things. They will be made cognizant of freedom and if it is necessary, penalty may be introduced. When the kids cross six old ages, they will be separated because of their gender individuality. In world the chief instruction of the kids will get down from this clip. The male childs will sit on Equus caballuss and run as the misss do so. Military preparation will be given penchants. They will exert for being ideal citizens non for being warriors. Because of this ground in Laws Plato has besides proposed to educate the misss as the male childs. In the secondary degree, the topics of instruction will be literature, music and simple mathematics. In instance instruction literature, learning how to read and compose is to be completed. As a consequence a pupil will be able to read all traditional authorship of Grecian literature.

In ‘ The Laws ‘ he has besides given less accent on reading poesy. In ‘ The Laws ‘ he claims that poesy exaggerates the world. Besides reading poesy the pupils can be allowed to analyze some narratives. But there can be some harmful elements in a individual narrative. Though Plato has talked about poets, he has said nil about the historiographers.

Besides teaching literature, music, and mathematics, the pupils must be taught physical exercising. The pupils must be taught physical exercising to protect the province. He has placed much accent on physical exercising and military instruction both in ‘ The Republic ‘ and ‘ The Torahs ‘ . The thing that Plato has missed in ‘ The Republic ‘ has pointed out in ‘ The Laws ‘ .

That is the age from16 to 25 is really of import. In this period it will be best to learn the pupils military instruction.

The theory of instruction has been being monitored/ supervised/regulated in the last few centuries concentrating on the avidity of the grownup pupils and the edifice of societal life of the pupil.

On the other manus, Rousseau is the first adult male who has worked for the improvement of instruction rejecting the above mentioned tendency of instruction. He has placed more importance on the demands, involvements, and the natural development of kids than the grownups. Rousseau ‘ s part to the development of instruction has been compared with the Kopernika Revolution. Rousseau says that kids are the creative activity of nature ; they should be brought up under the exclusive influence of nature. Rousseau has given much accent on the entirety than individuality in instance of instruction. The person will give his involvement for the greater benefit of the society.

The kids should be educated to salvage the being of the society. The experiences gathered from the preparation will be used for the whole community.

Rousseau ‘ s first book Sainte Marie is published in 1740. In this book he has talked about the ends and intents of instruction. He says that instruction is the medium of edifice of kids ‘ s head, making the ability of judgement and the flourishing of latent endowments.

In ‘ Emile ‘ he has elaborated the theory of instruction. He became really busy from 1750 to 1762 for the doctrine of instruction and society. In this clip he wrote ‘ Discourse of political Economy ‘ , ‘ The New Heloise ‘ , ‘ The Social Contract ‘ , ‘ Emile ‘ , ‘ Considerations on the authorities of Poland ‘ . Among these books ‘ Emile ‘ is the book on instruction. His book The ‘ Discourse of political Economy ‘ is besides on instruction where he has talked about mass instruction. In ‘ The New Heloise ‘ he has spoken about household instruction in the new visible radiation.

Rousseau ‘ s doctrine is fundamentally based on nature. In the traditional manner of instruction speaks in favour of the claim that the human nature is enchanted with both bad and good. The function of instruction is to alter this tendency and convey betterments in instruction. But Rousseau says that human nature is controlled by goodness. The function of instruction is to divide human being from other signifiers societal activities. He claims that instruction must be achieved through pure and relevancy human nature. So the function of instruction should be to emancipate the kids from all restrains and superstitious notions.

In ‘ Emile ‘ Rousseau says that national instruction will be a beginning for doing free adult male. At the age of 20 Paul will larn what he should make, nil more. When Paul starts reading, I will rede him to read his state. When he is at his teens, he will larn everything of his state. At the age of 15 he will cognize about history. At the age of 16 he will larn about jurisprudence. But no personality has been found who can be followed. In ‘ Emile ‘ , Rousseau points out parents as the natural instructor of the kids. Here the instruction, a kids gets even from an nonreader male parent is much better than the instruction he gets from any other celebrated instructors in the universe. Sing place coach he follows the Calvinistic Geneva theory. Here he says that kids must be educated. Girls will larn from their female parents and male childs from their male parents. This instruction is a kind of via media between the traditional instruction of Greek and the traditional house tutoring pattern in the bossy province.

These human qualities originate from the emotions involvement and exhilaration. So, this should be kept in head while planing the instruction policy of a state. The chief stipulation of Rousseau ‘ s theory of nature is to seek to understand the difference between male childs and misss. Harmonizing to Rousseau, this opposite features of male childs and misss become really conspicuous in their adolescent clip ; and this is the chief footing which demands the distinguishable kind of instruction for work forces and adult females. To back up his thought, he says that the male kids will get cognition of the universe with the relevancy of all other things to be a complete human being. On the other manus, the female kids will accomplish instruction to be a complete married woman and female parent.

Every human being is distinct in their psychological construction and because of this difference there are different kinds of necessities and demands found in them. The gustatory sensations and emotions of every human existences alterations clip to clip. Rousseau has proposed age based instruction theory concentrating on this difference.

The basic trait of Greek educational system is proper combination. So we can see the successful merger of different thoughts from other states in Grecian thought. As a consequence its public-service corporation has influenced the modern Philosophy of instruction crossing clip and lodger. Plato ‘ s Doctrine of instruction was specially written as a work program to construct up his ain state. Education for citizenship and leading has worked as a beginning of inspiration of his Doctrine of instruction. His Doctrine of instruction has secured and of import topographic point in the modern democratic societal system as it has been directed for citizenship. So this Doctrine of instruction is besides utile in modern clip if it is adapted to the current societal thoughts and moralities. His Doctrine of instruction is besides based on Psychology. Storytelling and athleticss have been given precedence in his practical acquisition methodological analysis. These two rules have besides been accepted in modern times. Though there is diverseness in his proposed course of study, it is done in a conservative manner. He has put particular accent on logic. He has non put importance on flourishing of other mental qualities and life growing. As a consequence, strife is seen between his purpose of instruction and his proposed course of study. Though his Doctrine of instruction is ideal, there is a job in application. Educationist and mind George Kennedy has commented on the rating of Plato ‘ s Doctrine of instruction: “ Plato ‘ s celebrity in the history of instruction remainders on his Utopian program for instruction and non on his work every bit practical instructor in the Academy ” . That means Plato is celebrated merely for his theoretical Doctrine of instruction non for application. ( Roy, 1989, p. 619 )

Rousseau has given a intimation of a new instruction policy. He said, a kids mixes up in nature really actively and therefore he learns. He said about it “ Let him cognize nil because you have told him but because he has learnt it himself, allow him non be taught scientific discipline, allow him detect it. ” This policy is now called the stock list policy. ( Uddin and Das, 2006, p. 258 )

He criticized smartly punishment in instruction. Physical penalty is purely prohibited in Rousseau ‘ s educational policy.

Rousseau is besides called the scout of socialist position in instruction. He emphasized on embellishment. He gave much importance on vocational instruction for the development of kids in the society.

The footing traits of kids centered instruction were built-in as little seeds in Rousseau ‘ s Doctrine of instruction. This little built-in seeds have turned into elephantine trees because of difficult labour and efforts of some educationalists like Montessori, Francis Parker, John Dewey and Kilpatrick.

Plato and Rousseau ‘ s period were different, so their activities happened in different position. Therefore, there are some similarities and unsimilarities between them.


Both Plato and Rousseau were philosophers, political minds and pedagogues. Both of them told about phase or age based instruction. They emphasized on physical exercising and female instruction. In this respect Rousseau discouraged higher female instruction. Both are against using force in instruction system of the kids and hold given importance to teacher ‘ s function in educating them.

Both of them were great nationalists and played critical function in distributing instruction among their brethren. They suggested methods for educating kids and played open uping function in implementing their instruction method in their state. They desired to do their countrymen fit for acquiring any challenge both from place and abroad. They tried to learn their countrymen enlightened and broad instruction, so that they may go good citizens. Their purpose was to learn their countrymen irrespective of caste and credo and showed understanding for both male and female. They preached cosmopolitan instruction in their state. Both of them advocated for institutional instruction patronized by the province.


Plato was a various mastermind who gave full attending and exhausted plenty energy in distributing instruction. He had many adherents. He established an academy which is known all over the universe as an ideal educational establishment. On the other manus, Rousseau did non set up such a specific school or academy. Rousseau desired that the kids should acquire cognition from nature and should be brought up in natural ambiance from where they would acquire educational elements. Students should be free from any bindings.

In Plato ‘ s instruction system different types of learning AIDSs such as, statue, symbol etc. were used during the clip of learning. But Rousseau did non order such type of tools.

Plato suggested different ways to educate the kids such as through stating narratives, drama and imitation etc. But Rousseau did non propose ways like Plato, Rousseau suggested for find method.

7. 2 Influences on Contemporary and Succeeding Generations

Like Plato, Aristotle besides thinks that the most of import duty of a state is to supply all kinds of necessary aid for the instruction of the immature coevals who are the future citizens of the state. In Chapter 7 and 8 of the book ‘ The Politics ‘ , Aristotle has discussed instruction ; and this instruction will be controlled by the province. It is non the household or the persons who are responsible for the instruction instead the province is responsible for it. What will a immature citizen learn? In replying this inquiry, there are four topics mentioned. These are 1 ) reading and authorship, 2 ) music, 3 ) physical exercising and 4 ) drawing. Through reading, composing and pulling the mental development of kids is ensured while through physical exercising, the physical qualities of kids are developed. There are many similarities between the instruction theories of Plato and Aristotle. Aristotle has besides talked about instruction for the philosopher male monarch. Aristotle besides establishes an establishment called Lyceum.

Like Plato Ibn Sina established a school named Maktab. Ibn Sina has placed much accent on category instruction than on single endeavor instruction. He has divided instruction system into two phases: ( 1 ) Primary instruction and ( 2 ) Secondary instruction. In this respect there is a important similarity between the instruction theories of Ibn Sina and Plato.

Pestalozzi was influenced by Rousseau ‘ s theory of instruction. When Pestalozzi was 16 old ages old, ‘ Emile ‘ was published. As shortly the book was published, he read the book and was influenced by the idea and statements of Rousseau. He has besides said in this respect, “ My airy a extremely bad head was enthusiastically seized by this airy and bad book. ” So there is a batch of similarity between the instruction theories of Rousseau and Pestalozzi. Both of them are the lovers of humanity. Both of them are sympathetic to humanity ; they have worked against the traditional ways of instruction ; and they have considered instruction as the agencies of development of the society. Pestalozzi was extremely influenced by Rousseau ‘ s theory of nature. They advocated that instruction will be imparted through the natural procedure harmonizing to their demands and involvements. Pestalozzi was in favour of exerting control in instance of instruction. His theory of instruction was more realistic. If he were non born, many things of Rousseau ‘ theories of instruction would non be implemented.

Like Plato, Raja Ram Mohan Roy started his educational activities by set uping Anglo Hindu School in 1822. The instruction theory of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and his institutionalised instruction were from Plato ‘ s program of instruction.

The epoch of instruction has started from the authorship of Rousseau. The ulterior minds were extremely influenced by his theories of instruction. There is a batch of similarity between the instruction theory of Rousseau and Froebel. But Froebel has non wholly recognized Rousseau ‘ s instruction theory. He is non in favour of avoiding the society. He has given much importance of the societal environment on the kids. So he is in favour of set uping the school as a contemplation of society. This thought has been to the full accepted by the modern instruction systems. Rousseau has wholly ignored the function of instructor in instruction. But Froebel has given importance on the function of instructor. Froebel has removed the defects of the psychological instruction theory of Pestalozzi. He has really successfully applied psychological science in instruction where he has taken the action of kids as an instruction theory. In a word it can be said that the instruction theory of Froebel is the exclusive foundation of modern theory of instruction. Based on Froebel ‘ s theory of instruction, some peculiar traits of the kids have been implemented in instruction.

The instruction theory of Vidyasagar is influenced by the instruction theory of Plato. As Plato has established an academy for the spread of instruction for the citizens of Athens, Vidyasagar has established many schools and colleges for the spread of instruction for the people of the Indian Sub Continent. He has given accent on female parent linguistic communication. Like Plato, he acknowledged the function of instructor in instance of instruction. We can state that similar Plato Vidyasagar followed female instruction and equal chances like work forces.

The instruction theory of Rabindranath Tagore is besides influenced by the theories of instruction of Plato and Rousseau. Rabindranath is besides a lover of nature. From the childhood Rabindranath hates the instruction system that is traditional and narrow in nature. The Shantiniketon established in 1901 is transformed into Bishawvaroti University in 1921. The chief intent of this university is to make the environment where every pupil can boom themselves through larning activities, survey and amusement. Like Plato he is besides in favour of female instruction. In the article ‘ Isthree Shikkha/ The Education for Wife ‘ he says that it is possible to authorise the adult females folk if they are decently educated.

The instruction theory of Russell is besides influenced by the instruction theory of Plato. Russell has divided his instruction system into two phases. He has besides placed importance on the co-education. Russell is in favour of presenting wages and penalty for set uping peace and subject in the school.

Begum Roquia is one of the really prima celebrated adult females who have contributed a batch to the development of female instruction. There is an indirect influence of Plato on Roquia. Like Plato, Roquia has given importance on equality of instruction ; and she has established many schools for the spread of instruction. Her authorship is the usher for the future coevals.

7. 3 Role in Planning and Planing the National Educatio

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