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Mih548 - theory based research - mod 3 slp

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MIH548 Theory Based Research Mod 3 SLP Quantitative Research Article Mustelin L., Silventoinen K, Pietilainen K. (2009) Physical activity reduces theinfluence of genetic effects on BMI and waist circumference: a study in young adult twins. International Journal of Obesity. 33: 29-36
Hypothesis
It is believed that excessive energy intake and physical activity are the main reasons for obesity in children. There is an argument that much of this obesity comes from genetics. Therefore their hypothesis is ” Childhood obesity is most often caused by excess intake of energy with a reduced physical activity level rather than genetics.”
Study Design
This is a population based, longitudinal study that was done with five consecutive cohorts over several years as these children grew up.
Variables
Most of the variables in this study are demographic in origin relating to the age, sex, and genetics of the child in the study. Also included are operational variables of BMI and waist circumference as well as physical activity and use of high energy foods (Pietilainany, Kapro, Rasomen, 2001).
Operationalizing
The variables that were operationalized were BMI, waist circumference, high energy food intake. They set an average BMI over the years of study per age group as well as waist circumference. The last studies of these groups of children were done when they reached the ages of 22-27 years old. Waist circumferences and high energy food intake were also defined along this continuum of study.
Validation of Instruments
One of the validity tests that they had to use here was the statistical conclusion validity and the reason for that is because there are many different variables being used. The most important variable to look at here is the use of twin to measure genetic effects on activity and obesity. All of the genetic backgrounds were traced and these twins did meet all of the criteria for a valid study showing that the statistical results were appropriate given the causal nature of the genetic part of the study (Burns & Grove, 2007).
Internal validity is about whether this is real world testing and in this case it certainly is as there are definitely real world issues for twins like any other child as far as developing or not developing obesity. Extraneous validity is important also and these children were allowed to live their normal lives with each of the parameters that might affect them tracked and then checked again over the years. In other words it was not set up that one twin would be sedentary while the other was active leading to one that was obese and one that was not. They lived their usual lives and if one was obese, it was determined by the real lifestyle that child led.
References
Burns, N & Grove S. (2007). The Practice of Nursing Research 5th ed. Elsevier Saunders : Missouri.
Mustelin L, Silventoinen K, Pietalainen K. (2009) Physical activity reduces the influence of genetic effects on BMI and waist circumference: a study in young adult twins. International Journal of Obesity. 33: 29-36.
Pietilainen KH, Kaprio J, Rasanen M. (2001). Tracking of body size from birth to late adolescence: contribution of birth length, birth weight, duration of gestation, parents body size, and twinship. American Journal of Epidemiology. 154: 21-29

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