This paper explores power sources for a Chief Executive Officer in any given company. They exist in two groups, namely, positional power and personal power. Positional power encompasses reward or coercion power, which derives from strategic contingencies that encompass a Chief Executive Officer’s office. In addition, it arises from institutional dimensions of a Chief Executive Officer’s office role within a company and the society at large. On the other hand, personal power entails referent energy brought about by warm attractive leaders and other qualities that inspire followers.
Legitimate power derives from ones position in the organization while coercion power is available to a leader who can exert influence through the use of punishment and threat. Reward power is available to a leader through ability to give or withhold rewards such as money, promotion, recognition or anything valuable. Expert power derives from a leader’s knowledge with the ability to influence others to support and implement decisions which are necessary for an effective leader. This paper discusses ten influence tactics available for use by leaders.
They include but not limited to compliance/coalition, conformity/coalition, identification process/inspirational appeal, rational persuasion, consultation, ingratiating, personal appeal, pressure, exchange and assertiveness. A company can avoid problems when a Chief Executive Officer uses these influence tactics. This paper goes ahead to give three examples of business problems related to most companies. In addition, it explains influence tactics that leaders can use to curb their problems.
Leadership Sources and Influence Tactics Used to Avoid Problems in a Company Leadership involves an asymmetrical influence on group members in a direction of collective, interdependent goals to bring change. Aspects such as access to various power sources, consistency with social norms and role expectations, skill in using influence tactics and the ability of those tactics to influence followers’ attitudes determine a leader’s effectiveness. It reduces operational, administration and ethical problems in a company. In other words, to get things done in a company, a leader should use power.
Discussion There are several sources of power that a Chief Executive Officer in any organization has at their disposal. They include Reward Power/Position Power – power to give or withhold rewards such as money, promotion, recognition or anything with value. Coercion Power – power available when one can exert influence through the use of punishment and threat. This generates resistance when used in an office. Increase in democracy has reduced levels of this power. Referent Power – exists from one’s likeliness by others, that is, an attractive and warm person is more lovable than any other person.
Networking can be a benefit for an individual with this power. Legitimate Power – this power derives from one’s position in an organization. It has a title attached to it, for instance, Chief Executive Officer, manager, teacher, among others. Expert Power – an individual with expert power has knowledge or expertise that a company values. This can arise from an extensive background and education or extremely proficient skills of an individual in a certain area. Situational leadership refers to the ability to use appropriate sources of power when faced to various problems in a company.
This ability enhances a leader to create an effective command climate within a company. However, power sources can only be effective when a leader implements different influence tactics. This refers to the use of power to bring about change in a company. There are several influence tactics that a Chief Executive Officer can use in a company, namely: Compliance/Coalition – this refers to situations where one gets another person to do something, for instance, a CEO persuading a manager to comply. In addition, one can also use someone else’s support as a reason for another person to comply.
This influence tactic draws on reward and coercion power. Conformity/Legitimating – this influence tactic is where one uses authority status in order to get a follower to do something. A CEO can make reference to policy manuals, rules or practices and traditions. This influence tactic draws on legitimate power. Identification Process/Inspirational Appeal – this influence tactic is whereby one uses arousal of followers’ enthusiasm by appealing to values, ideals and aspirations. Followers accept influence because they identify with a leader.
However, they have to employ gentleness and humility. This influence tactic draws from referent power. Rational Persuasion – this influence tactic is where one uses logical arguments and factual evidence to make a point. This influence tactic draws so much from expert power. Consultation – this influence tactic is whereby a CEO seeks a follower’s assistance or modifies a follower’s proposal to get something done. This draws from reward, coercive or legitimate power. Ingratiating – this tactic involves a leader getting into a good mood before giving commands.
Use of flattery words, politeness, friendly or humble attributes are necessary. This tactic draws from reward power. Personal Appeal – this tactic is whereby a leader attracts followers’ feelings of loyalty and friendship. It draws from referent and reward power. Pressure – this influence tactic is whereby one uses demands, threats or persistent reminders in order for a follower to perform a task. This influence tactic draws from coercive power. Exchange – this tactic involves a leader doing favors or offering trade favors.
This draws from reward power. 10. ) Assertiveness – this influence tactic includes repeatedly making requests, setting timelines for project completion and expressing anger to workers who do not meet deadlines. Below are examples of problems that companies face today and the influence tactics that leaders can use to curb the same. Problem 1: Sexual Harassment – An individual harassing a coworker sexually in an office is a rampant incidence. A leader’s objective, in such a situation, is to bring it to an end.
This is easy to achieve through rational persuasion and pressure. Problem 2: Lack of competition – this is when workers do not want to compete with others. A leader’s objective in such a scenario is to influence them to see the need for increased motivation for improved economic gain. They can achieve this through personal and inspirational appeals. Problem 3: Increase in insurance premiums – A company’s budget cannot sustain an increase in insurance premium. Therefore, a leader’s objective in this case is to increase financial giving.
They can achieve this through rational persuasion and inspirational appeals. Conclusion Use of coercion power is likely to generate resistance and lack of cooperation. On the other hand, legitimate and reward power are likely to produce compliance with a CEO’s goals. Without a doubt, power draws genuine commitment and enthusiasm for their agenda. Mastering the art of influence is a key leadership component as it gets employees to accept ideas towards change. Effective leaders understand the appropriate influence tactic to implement in each situation.
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