Proposal Essay, 29 pages (7000 words)

Hesis proposal-assessment of reading proficiency.doc

An Assessment of Reading Proficiency Level of Grade IV pupils of Paranaque Elementary School-Central A Thesis Proposal Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Arts, Sciences and Education Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Sheila M. Roque M. A. Ed. (Educ. Admin) TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I — Introduction Background of the Study ———————————————- 1 Statement of the Problem ———————————————- 3 Hypothesis ———————————————- 5 Significance of the Study ———————————————- 5 Scope and Limitation ———————————————- 5 Chapter II — Theoretical Framework Review of Related Literature ———————————————- 7 A. Foreign ———————————————- 7 B. Local ———————————————- 10 Related Studies ———————————————- 16 A. Foreign ———————————————- 16 B. Local ———————————————- 17 Synthesis ———————————————- 18 Conceptual Framework ———————————————- 20 Definition of Terms ———————————————- 22 Chapter III — Methodology Research Design ———————————————– 24 Research Locale ———————————————– 24 Samples and Sampling ———————————————– 24 Technique Instrumentation ———————————————— 30 Procedures ———————————————— 31 Statistical Analysis ———————————————— 32 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study Reading is very essential aspect of the educational curriculum. It has a very significant role in the life of people especially children. It has also a very important place in the elementary education. A sound developmental reading lays the foundation for a balance development of two groups of skills in the process of learning to read: the mechanics of reading that should be carefully and effectively developed while a rich reading vocabulary is the basic for the development of a variety of comprehension skills. Reading should develop in the reader’s critical thinking because there are times when he must read between the lines for hidden meanings or reach the beauty or humor of a selection. There are times when he does not need to read some words and phrases to search for important ideas or to locate derived information and at other instances he must take time to consider the meaning of every word. Learning to read is a continuous process that gradually broadens in scope. Reading involves many skills and abilities. Learning to read, therefore means a development of sequential skills and abilities. It is important in later life because persistent learning never ends. It goes beyond the limits of the school. It continually offers the reader a new experiences and delightful adventures, present him with new knowledge and inspires him to reach the heights of achievements and self-improvement. Many skills and abilities needed in later life are started and developed as early as the elementary grades, so effective reading which likes its foundation in the primary grades, should be carefully planned, skillfully guided and thoroughly prepared. 2 One of the biggest problems encountered by an English teacher is the low reading performance of his/her pupils. Reading involves two main skills, namely recognition and comprehension. Generally, pupils have lower performance in comprehension than in recognition. Everybody agrees that, “ there is no reading without comprehension. ” Development of reading ability and increased comprehension skills need greater emphasis in learning. To achieve this goal, the teachers need to assess the pupils’ ability in reading. This is the rationale of the implementation on the use of Phil. Informal Reading Inventory (PHIL-IRI). It is a unified and standardized assessment tool supporting the DepEd thrust, “ Every Child a Reader Program (ECARP). This program aimed at making a child a reader by the end of Grade III. PHIL-IRI gives both quantitative and qualitative information about the pupils’ reading capabilities. Quantitative information shows the reading levels which include frustration, instructional and independent levels, while qualitative information reveals word recognition, patterns of errors, comprehension strengths and difficulties as well as reading behaviors and attitudes and the measurement of reading growth overtime (IRI Manual 2000). It is important that the teachers should be able to determine the reading level of his/her pupil to enable one to decide on the plans and remedies to be instituted. The teacher may provide different exercises to those who belong to frustration and instructional and provide advance work to those in the independent level. Pupils under frustration level should be given the simplest reading materials; and generally reading it more complicated until they become an independent reader. Those who belong to Instructional level will be given more complicated reading materials, while those in the independent level should be provided with variety of reading materials and exercises that will challenge their capabilities and making them more independent. 3 In this, English has become the leading medium for the transmission of information and knowledge in the conduct of business and international communication (Modern Teacher, 2002). With this, it can be noticed that Filipinos love their language advantage (superiority of usage of English compare to other Asian countries.). This was revealed by low results in various tests conducted in English. Baysa (1999) stated in his analysis on the 1998 National Elementary Achievement Test that English is the weakest area. Poor reading has always been the complaint of many teachers particularly in the Grade IV level of Paranaque Elementary School-Central. The failure in reading is declining to everyone. The poor readers cannot get what they should even if they read carefully and do their best. Still more importantly, the rest of the class is held back while the teacher tries hard to do something for the poor reader up to the poor group. Thus, the total loss in time and in educational values which poor readers cause in our school system is enormous. And the loss is happiness, self-confidence and security on the part of the poor reader is beyond calculation. With this concern for the enhancement of the English instruction, this study will be conducted. Need to strengthen pupils’ English language capabilities, in particular to improve the reading comprehension of pupils in the basic education as the main concern or goal in the conduct of this research. B. Statement of the Problem The primary concern of this study was to find out the reading difficulties of Grade IV pupils of Paranaque Elementary School-Central. Specifically, it was conceived with the following problems: 1. What is the profile of the respondents as regards to: 1. 1. Pupils a. Age and gender b. Ethnic origin / dialect spoken 4 c. Parents’ educational attainment d. Sources of family income based on parents’ occupation. 1. 2. Teachers a. Age and gender b. Ethnic origin / dialect spoken c. Educational qualification d. Monthly income 2. What is the pupils’ reading proficiency level in the full categories? a. Independent b. Instructional c. Frustration 3. What is the reading performance level of the respondents during pre-test and post-test in the following areas: a. Word list b. Informal Reading Inventory 4. Is there a significant difference in the respondents’ reading performance level during the pre-test and post-test in the two areas mentioned in question # 3? 5. Is there a significant relationship between the reading performance level of pupils in the post-test when grouped according to variables identified in question # 1? 6. What relationship exists between pupils’ competency level and the difficulties in reading as perceived by teachers? 7. What are the appropriate reading exercises/drills which will help the Grade IV pupils overcome their weaknesses? 5 C. Hypothesis The two hypotheses was tested to answer the problems mentioned were: 1. There is no significant difference in the reading performance level of the respondents between the pre-test and post-test. 2. There is no significant relationship between the reading performance level in the post-test and the respondents’ profile as to age, gender, monthly family income, and educational attainment of parents. D. Significance of the Study This study will be of significance to: A. Pupils — The first one who will be benefited by this study. They will be given the chance to know their reading level as well as their capabilities with the help of their teacher since they will be well guided during the the reading. B. Teachers — The outcome of this study could make teachers aware as well as responsive in performing their roles and responsibilities in guiding and helping the pupils achieve their optimum level of learning on reading. C. Supervisors — Findings of the study may serve as an eye-opener and motivation to supervisors in upgrading the teachers’ quality of instruction as well as their output. D. Researchers — Findings of the study are not conclusive in view of its limitation hence, researchers could make use of the data and findings investigations of related purpose. E. Scope and Limitations This study will be limited to the teachers of Grade IV and 626 from sections 1 — 11 of the said level for the school year 2010-2011. Descriptive type method will be use where the data were based from the test results given by the teachers. 6 It includes the profile of the respondents like age, gender, monthly family income, parents’ educational attainment, available reading materials at home as factors influencing their reading performance. Furthermore, the reading performance level in word recognition (Word List) and Comprehension ability of the pupils through the Informal Reading Inventory (IRI) were also determined both in pre-test and post-test; and its implication to English instruction. 7 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE To gain further insights about the reading proficiency of the Grade IV pupils, the researcher referred to the foreign and local literature which are related to the present study. The survey of reading made by the researcher is mainly on the following concepts: reading comprehension, level of comprehension, reading strategies and factors that affect the reading skills and ability of a child. A. Related Literature A. 1 Foreign Reading stimulates and develops the mind enabling the reader to acquire ideas. With this, one highly develops habits like concentration, stimulating intellectual ability and produces clear and accurate visualization. Reading development skills are necessary for good achievement in reading. Meaningful reading includes not only literal interpretation of an author’s words but also an interpretation of the mode, tone, feeling an attitude of the writer. Thus a reader must comprehend the implied meaning and prejudice of Roller (2001) stated whatever motivation and purpose reading implies, an individual must understand and what he reads. One must understand what he reads for meaning. An ultimate purpose of the act is to arrive at the perception of meaning, to develop in him an attitude, abilities and skills needed for getting information fostering and reacting to details, developing interest and pleasures by reading. Stanovich (1996) cited factors that affect the reading proficiency level of the reader. 1. Background Knowledge — For sometime, teachers have structured learning around activities labeled into, the through and beyond. On the past days, teachers conducted brief pre-reading activities. Current study indicates students benefit most by a front-loading of activities and information to assess, activate and develop background knowledge. 8 2. Pre-reading activities – serve to make the text accessible to students and enable them to remember what they have learned. Background knowledge and activation of such can be the difference between understanding new concepts and being able to apply them and total confusion. Effective and efficient comprehension of text, particularly expository requires the ability to relate the material to knowledge the reader that he/she posseses. This ability is an interactive process between the reader’s background knowledge and text. In this, background knowledge can be more formally defined as schema, means that any text, either spoken or written does not by itself carrying meaning. The readers must construct meaning based on background knowledge. Aside from Stonovich’s factors, he also cited 2 components to background knowledge are the following: Assuring or activating background knowledge-This is where students may have knowledge about a topic but do not necessarily bring it to the conscious level. Examples for that are pre-reading activities such as brainstorming, developing a graphic organizer, questioning activities and writing related to the topic can help activate such knowledge. Next is Developing Background Knowledge- This is where students may look the knowledge necessary to understand a particular text. The teacher must intervene to provide the needed background information to facilitate understanding. Decisions need to be made as to what specific knowledge is needed, how much time can be allotted for development activities and what specific activities would be utilized. According to Stonovich’s study, another factors for lacking proficiency level of pupils are lacking of vocabulary knowledge, difficulties in fluency and accuracy of word identification that interferes with comprehension. Aspects of reading are dealt within the vocabulary and decoding sections. Hence, these aspects and background knowledge, comprehension is influenced by the following: 9 A. Metacognition- An area of recent focus in comprehension research and strategies, which concerns with the student’s awareness of his / her won thinking while attempting to understand printed material. B. Student Motivation- This is where children used to have reading materials that interest them and according to their instructional or independent reading levels. Hence, children also need time and encouragement for wide reading in order to develop vocabulary and background knowledge. C. Text Structure- Where Expository Writing is very different from narrative, with which students have more experience. The elements of a narrative are organized into what some researchers describe as story grammars, consisting of setting, characters, events and outcome. D. Strategies- This is where students need to be able to draw inferences from text, summarize information predict what will happen next, formulate questions about text and visualize what they need. E. Integration- This is where students used to be able to integrate background knowledge with text information and to organize the new information and to organize the new information for later retrieval. F. Fluency- Is the ability to recognize words rapidly and accurately so that reading appears effortless and automatic. This is where good readers identify words quickly, read at an appropriate pace and use appropriate phrasing and expression. Fluency, which is assessed according to speed, accuracy and checking ability, is the key to good reading comprehension. 10 Fresno (2004) presented several factor affecting comprehension. These are vocabulary, prior knowledge and experience, motivation and attention (curiosity) students choice of reading the text, high quality of the text, reading rate and fluency, word recognition, metacognition, students use of skills, meaning making summarizing, separating facts from opinion, genres, structure, decoding and spelling, language and study skills and reference using dictionary and charts. Blair (2001) mentioned in her article “ Cause of Poor Reading Among Pupils”, further stressed that an individual is considered a full man only when stressed that an individual is considered a full man only when is endowed with the ability to read a wide variety of materials. By the power of reading, he widens his horizon and frees himself from the bondage of ignorance and retardation. Furthermore, reading comprehension is developmental.(www. reading-comprehension-expert. com/reading). The reader may not have reading comprehension problems, but need to keep increase reading capability and experience. The child should be feed with nutritious foods and should be provided with all the basic needs to keep allow proper growth. To help pupils develop progressively to read more fluently and independently, materials of increasing difficulty and complexity are needed to be introduced. (LerFevre, 2002). A. 2. Local Learning to read is complex and continuous process in a child’s development. It starts from the early years to the later part of a lifetime. It is a basic tool for learning to facilitate the ability to reason, think, discriminate, judge, assess and solve problems. Although so single method of reading instruction is advocated, a teacher or person involved in teaching reading need to seek strategies to assess the most valuable techniques in teaching reading. It is important to determine the pupil’s interests, needs and growth patterns. (Valle, 2003). 11 Guiao (1999) added that to help teachers adapt to pupil’s needs, she suggested that: A. Change in classroom management and instruction. B. Change in seatwork and level of material for instruction. C. Change in school wide goals that is to give children the opportunity to experience what it is like to reach like a good reader reads. She also emphasized 4 factors that have significant contribution to success in adapting to the needs of poor readers. They are: 1. Climate- To create a school climate in which teachers would take the risks necessary to change. A sense of excitement, high expectations, trust and administrative responsiveness to teacher needs. 2. Involvement- Teachers can meet individually each week with the administrative, interest at staff meeting and meeting with coordinators to solve problems. 3. Ownership- Teachers should be encouraged and supported to test solutions to problems and develop a commitment to a method that works. They may share their ideas that can evidently developed reading pupils. 4. Knowledge- Teachers should be encouraged to reach professional growth, read professional magazines and journals that can enhance their knowledge in their profession. Bernardino (1998) stated that a wide vocabulary is one of the most essential factors that conditions language power. He also pointed out that a pupil who experiences speech and writing deficiencies may develop feeling of inferiority and insecurity, that may adversely affect chances for success in activities in the classroom. 12 Pascual and Talamayan (2000) enumerated some techniques or approaches on how to improve reading comprehension. !. Directed Reading Approach (DRA) – It is a strategy used to extend and strengthen child’s reading abilities. This strategy includes motivation and development of background, direct story reading (silent and oral), skill-building activities, follow-up practices and enrichment. 2. Directed Reading Thinking Activity (DRTA) — A general plan used for directing reading on either basic reader stories or content area selections and for encouraging children to think they read, to make predictions and check their accuracy. The child is interacting with the material during the reading. 3. Language Experience Approach (LEA) — With this, different language charts are interrelated and the experience of the children are used as the basis for the selection of reading materials. 4. Individual Reading Approach — It allows reader to select or choose materials they are interested in reading. The child reads the material at his or her own pace. Slower students are not rushed through the reading in order to keep up with the faster ones nor are held back until others have caught up with them. 5. Usage of Graphic Organizer- Are visual presentation or diagrams for major Concept on additional information taken from the text. Talamayan (2000) stated that graphic organizers should be taught or introduced to the pupils at a time. The teacher must be skillful enough to guide her pupils on how to go about working each activity. Graphic organizers have clues which serve as guides for both teacher and leaves to organize their concepts taken from the text and integrate their ideas in order to have a better understanding of the text. 13 Pascual (2000) mentioned that success in the development of comprehension among pupils depends largely on the strategies and instructional materials utilized by the teacher. This concept was done when she conducted a research to the Grade IV pupils at the Caloocan Elementary School in 1990 about a series of tests accompanied with improved instructional approaches and devices brought forth a higher level of proficiency in comprehension. Julian (2000) stated the important activities in reading comprehension or instruction as follows: A. Development reasoning and thinking skills B. Development of background knowledge and its application to processing of text. C. Development of the cognitive and affective dimensions. Four general conditions that are favorable to comprehension are enumerated by McMullough cited by Pascual (2000), includes: 1. Removing Impediments — It involves child’s lack of confidence in himself or in training how to organize and paragraphs with no assistance in interpretation and critical evaluation. 2. Content- Reading materials should be range from easy to difficult for a particular child. The teacher must be able to choose topics which can be understood by the child. 3. Preparation- A condition that prepares the student for what is to be read. It includes pronounciation and meanings of difficult and new words, preliminary reading and discussion, audio and visual materials, problem solving approval and introducing supplementary materials from the library which can be read. 4. Motivation — A highly important to arouse the interest of the children by helping them associate the subject matter to their own experiences or by using audio- visual aids. 14 Gonzaga (2000) also illustrated different stages in reading: 1. Word Recognition — The ability to pronounce the word as meaningful in it. It involves reaction, or identification of the printed symbol and mainly illustrated by the author. 2. Comprehension — Refers to the skills in reading such as noting details, making inferences, drawing conclusions, recognizing the author’s purpose, tone and feeling. These skills help the reader to group the total meaning of the passage. 3. Integration — The ability to assimilate idea or concept into one’s background of experience so that it is useful as part of the individual’s total experience. 4. Reaction — Judgment on what the author has said. These judgments are the results of critical reading and experience. Reactions occur only when comprehension is fully realized. Dogelio (2003) mentioned that the involvement of parents as teachers to their children can contribute to the reading development and the formation of reading habits of their children utilizing various stimulating techniques. It is important that the pupils are prepared with reading experiences to feel enjoyment, satisfaction, confidence and appreciation in the different school activities. Parents misconstrue that it is the teachers’ obligation to teach everything to their children and not theirs. It is more significant if they always find time for their children to read and make their children become efficient and skilled readers and develop high reading performance. Thus, Parents need to realize also their great influence on their children’s academic effort and achievement. They are the models that children imitate that serve as their way of adjusting to new situations and tasks. Sinlao (2001) suggested tips on how teachers can help pupils who don’t read well as follows: 1. Say words as well as write them. 2. Find out who needs help to provide more activities or attention that they need. 15 3. Use short sentences whenever possible in written tasks and instructions. 4. Put reading into perspective and revived all pupils that use of words and interpretation of words need to be done accordingly. 5. Make assessment less dependent on reading skills by varying the techniques. 6. Use some tasks where reading is not important. 7. Help pupils preserve their self-esteem. 8. Help with spelling as well. Identify new vocabulary and help pupils learn to spell new words. 9. Help pupils gain confidence and motivation by helping them with their difficulties. 10. Never stop explaining. Umblas (2001) emphasized the causes of poor reading among pupils. The possible causes of poor reading include: A. Physical deficiencies 1. Visual deficiencies 2. Auditory deficiencies 3. Motor deficiencies 4. Speech deficiencies B. Teacher’s inability to realize the pupil’s potentials, interests and needs. C. Poor timing of instruction. Students in their elementary years need to develop the necessary thinking to enhance their capability to compel with the academic requirements competently. The range of knowledge, skills and values they develop determines their sense of self-efficacy and good self-concept. If they have the capability to cope with the demands of academic work, they will feel confident and ready to take risks. If they always fail and feel they lack skills, they may develop inferiority and may even resort to other negative behavior. 16 Pupils learn in different levels; however there are these who may not perform well because of shyness. To overcome shyness the teacher need to encourage shy pupils by comparing them to other children who grew up to be famous figures by reviewing their lives. In order for the teachers to make contact to them, assume them (pupils) that they still belong to the group and let their shy pupils contribute to the group. Gines (1998) mentioned that the school was tasked by society to help parents promote the total development of the child. The effectiveness it can contribute to the child’s intellectual development. The teachers become the major facilitator in the maximum enhancement of their growth. According to her, it is best that teachers must have self-respect so that they will be able to help the pupils cope with problems and be also to understand their feelings of themselves, their families and lessons as well. Companion for the child’s attempts in learning difficult concepts as well as patience and awareness of the child’s need for support and encouragement are ingredients to child’s feeling of worth and acceptance. Therefore, if effective measures shall be done to help solve these factors of reading difficulties among pupils, the percentage of the pupils at risk will be lessened or reduced if not totally eradicated. B. Related Studies B. 1 Foreign Some studies were formed by the researchers to be related to the present one. A study conducted by Pearson (2001) about the status of knowledge base suggested that teachers must be aware of the gap in the pupils’ cultural background knowledge. Helevi (1999) conducted a research and found out that the number of poor readers in particularly large in rural public schools. Reading scores in many of the poorer districts are very low. Therefore, reading is affected by socio-demographic factors. 17 Glee (1999) mentioned that the high level of poverty is the best predictor of children who will have reading problems. Harste (2001) mentioned in his research that reading is an opportunity to explore what is on the minds of children. Teachers have to set up an environment where kids can express what is on their mind and knows that it will be respected. Trust (1998) stated in his study that the family influences on educational expectations of late adolescents. Using rational data, the author examined the influence of family and parent variables on expectation regarding education. Demographic, family and parenting variables were reported by adolescents and parents while adolescents where serious in high school, and educational expectations were reported by adolescent two years beyond high school. The purpose of the study was to investigate various dimensions of parents’ involvement with their adolescents and relationships of those dimensions to educational expectations at late adolescence. He found out that Socio-Economic Status (SES) was the most strongly related educational expectations. In addition, both seemed to interact with SES. Variables quantifying the affective dimension of the family relationships were only weakly related to educational expectation. B. 2 Local Villahermosa (2000), mentioned in her study on the reading level of the elementary pupils found out that their level of reading performance is instructional. Sex, grade level and special training of teachers were independent variables that significantly influence the reading level of pupils. Mercedes (2000), stated that the type of school, parents’ educational attainment and study habits can be determine the respondents’ comprehensions while sex was not a factor. 18 Home factors such as reading materials, family member assistance, and home environment did not affect much the reading performance of the pupil, but the teacher’s instructional materials affect their reading skills, learned on the research made by Del Rosario (2000). It is revealed that school factors such as reading methods and school facilities did not affect much reading performance of the pupils but the instructional materials affect their reading abilities. With regards to their reading performance level, he found out that majority of the respondents belong to the performance level of satisfactory although there are still some who belong to the Needs Improvement Performance level. Collado (1999), identified the problems of poor comprehension of pupils in the district of Pangasinan. In the Division Achievement Test in English, 75% of the pupils got 75% of the total test items. The pupils were found to have difficulty in answering the questions in the selections they had read. Julia (2000), found out in a survey of the most common skills and abilities being developed by teachers in the reading classes, only skills on the first and second level of comprehension were being developed. The most common are the following: 1. Answer specific questions. 2. Read with correct phrasing 3. Pronounce words clearly and distinctly. 4. Dramatize the selection read. 5. Retell the story. C. Synthesis The researcher reviewed and the present study have similarities as well as differences in terms of subject matter, respondents, population, method used in gathering data, some sources of data, sampling technique and statistical treatment. 19 The studies of Villahermosa and Mercedes dealt with the reading performance level of elementary pupils. The present study focuses on the same topic but with a specific group of respondents, the Grade IV pupils. The personal profiles of the previous and present studies are similar in terms of age, gender and parent’s educational attainment. These studies that were reviewed and the most significantly related with the currently conducted study. The study of Helevi focus on the school factors affecting the reading performance of students and the reading preferences of students respectively. The identification of the types of reading materials available at home was considered usingn the previous studies. The studies of Julia and Collado focus more on the reading competencies and difficulties in the comprehension of the students, while the present study only try to determine the level of reading comprehension of Grade IV pupils. The study conducted by Gee and Helevi considered socio-economic variable as a factor that can influence the reading performance of the subject of the study. Although they have similarities , the present study focuses on the Grade IV pupils of Paranaque Elementary School-Central. Both previous studies and present study make use of descriptive research but differ in the technique used. Most previous studies employed survey techniques alone while the present study used the documentary analysis and supplemental with survey technique and study. 20 D. Conceptual Framework Problems in reading comprehension among Grade IV pupils are very common nowadays even in the present research locale. A conceptual framework of this study comes from the idea that comprehension is the main goal of all reading activities. Without it, a reader could not enjoy and love the skill of reading. He/She must be able to recognize even the smallest hierarchy of language that is from letter, syllables, word, phrase, clause sentence and paragraph or even bigger texts. He/She must be able to know the skill of reading and decoding words obtain meaning from these and then relate the ideas to what he/she actually knows already about a certain thing. Several concepts and ideas are borrowed and made by the research as guide in constructing this study. Concepts include reading ability, reading comprehension, reading difficulty factors that affect one’s reading ability and reading skills. From the various concepts read, the researcher constructed a diagram presenting the conceptual model of the study. 21 22 E. Definition of Terms The following linguistic terms were defined either operationally conceptually for a better understanding of the study on hand. Assessment Tool — A set of passage given to the child to determine his/her reading level. Creative level — These are questions that draw from the child his own way of visualizing things based on his own scheme. Comprehension — fusion of meaning of separate words into a chain of related ideas. It also means the ability to interpret what has read. Frustration — This is the level where the child answers 0-49% of the questions asked or zero (0) or to two (2) questions out of the 6 questions, based on the paragraph or selection. PHIL IRI (2003). Independent — it is the level where the child answers 89-100% of the questions asked five to six questions out of the 6 questions based on the passage or selection. Inferential/Interpretative — These are questions words into a chain of related ideas. It also means the ability to interpret what has read. Informal Oral Reading — An assessment on the child’s word recognition and comprehension skills. PHIL IRI (2003) Instructional — it is the level while the child answer 50-85% of the questions asked or 3 to 4 out of the 6 questions based on the passage or selection. Miscues — errors made by the pupil as reads orally. PHIL IRI (2003) Pupil Factor — This refers to the child ability, capability, and potential to learn reading. This may include his/her interest, attitude and about reading that may personally affect his/her reading. 23 PHIL IRI — Authentic reading assessment that attempts to evaluate reading in a way that closely aligns to actual classroom instruction. It determines student’s thinking processes as well as their reading performance, comprehension, vocabulary and word identification strategies within context. It gives quantitative and qualitative information about the pupils’ reading capabilities. Oral Reading Passages — paragraph consisting of grade level paragraphs, stories or poems that the child read. These passages come in 3 forms with varying difficulty- level A-easy, level B-average and C- difficult. They have definitely no accompanying pictures to avoid the possible use of picture clues in obtaining meaning from the text that may lessen the accuracy of the text in determining the reading ability to comprehend printed language PHIL IRI (2003). Reading Comprehension — refers to the reading achievement. Reading levels — This refer to set up words that a child must read indicated in the word list set by the PHIL IRI. Reading — a purposeful process of identifying, interpreting and evaluating ideas in terms of mental content or total awareness of the reader. Teacher Factor — person who is solely authorized to teach the pupils in learning reading. It also involves his/her personal characteristics, qualification, age, sex, skills and competence that may possibly affect the pupils way of learning reading. Teaching Strategy — refers to any method approach, manual of style of a teacher in teaching that could affect the child’s way of learning reading. Word list — list of words the teacher used to introduce and provide initial practice for new and word types. They are also used to introduce words that will appear in the passage. PHIL IRI (2003) 24 Chapter III METHODOLOGY This chapter describes the methods and procedures that will employ in the conduct of the study. It also includes the research design, population and sampling procedure, data gathering procedure, research instrument and statistical treatment of data. A. Research Design The researcher will adopt the descriptive survey research method in gathering the baseline data needed in the preparation of the reading test for the target subjects of the study. According to Sevilla et. Al (1997) a descriptive research involves a collection of data in order to test the hypothesis or to answer questions concerning the current status of the subjects of the study. It refers to the collection of information about the population in which direct contact is made through systematic means as the questionnaire, interview schedules and tests. It is preferred to be used to a manageable number and can be accomplished with limited resource and less time. This method was appropriate in this research since the type of design is used to know the effect of reading level in the academic performance of Grade IV pupils of Paranaque Elementary School-Central. B. Research Locale The study will be conducted at the Rodriguez Building of Paranaque Elementary School-Central, San Dionisio, Paranaque City. This will be done for one-hour in their first period (PM session). C. Samples and Sampling Techniques The subjects of this study are the 12 teachers and 626 Grade IV pupils of Paranaque Elementary School-Central. 25 | Table 1 | | | | Respondents of Grade IV pupils of Paranaque Elementary | | School-Central | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Section | Monthly | No. of Pupils | Percentage | | |   | Enrollment | tested |   | | | 1 | 64 | 45 | 54. 5 | | | 2 | 63 | 43 | 53 | | | 3 | 64 | 39 | 51. 5 | | | 4 | 62 | 37 | 49. 5 | | | 5 | 62 | 35 | 48. 5 | | | 6 | 60 | 27 | 21. 75 | | | 7 | 60 | 26 | 43 | | | 8 | 51 | 23 | 37 | | | 9 | 48 | 22 | 35 | | | 10 | 47 | 23 | 35 | | | 11 | 45 | 25 | 35 | | | TOTAL | 626 | 345 | 100 | | Table 1 shows that out of 626 pupils, 345 responded to the test survey. In Section 1, out of 64 pupils, 45 took the survey (54. 5), Section 2, out of 63 pupils, 45 responded (53), Section 3, out of 64 pupils, 39 responded (51. 5), Section 4 and 5, only 37 and 35 students took the test, (49. 5) and (48. 5) respectively. Sections 6 and 7 out of 60 pupils each, 27 and 26 (21. 75) and (43) responded to the test survey, Section 8, out of 51 pupils, 23 (37) took the test and sections 9, 10 and 11 of 48, 47 and 45 students respectively, 22, 23 and 25 pupils responded to the survey with a percentage of 35%. 26 | Table 2 | | | | Percentage Distribution of Pupil Respondents by Age | | | | | | | | | | | | Age | f |% | | | 9 years old and | 150 | 43. 48 | | | below |   |   | | |   |   |   | | | 10 years old | 121 | 35. 07 | | |   |   |   | | |   |   |   | | | 11 years old and | 74 | 21. 45 | | | above |   |   | | |   |   |   | | | TOTAL | 345 | 100 | | |   |   |   | | Table 2 shows that 150 (43. 48) who took the test are 9 years old and below, 121 pupils (35. 07) responded to the survey and 74 (21. 45) pupils answered the test survey given. | Table 3 | | | Percentage Distribution of Pupil Respondents by | | Sex | | | | | | | | | | Sex | f |% | | Male | 175 | 50. 72 | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | Female | 170 | 49. 28 | |   |   |   | | TOTAL | 345 | 100 | |   |   |   | Table 3 shows that 175 (50. 72) were male and 170 (49. 28) are female who took the reading test study. 27 | Table 4 | | | Distribution of Teacher respondents of PES-Central | | | | | | | Name of School | No. of Grade | No. of teacher | Percentage | |   | IV-teachers | respondents |   | |   |   |   |   | | PES-Central | 12 | 6 | 50 | |   |   |   |   | | Total | 12 | 6 | 50 | | | | | | . Table 4 shows that out of 12 Grade IV teachers, 6 (50) responded to the survey. | Table 5 | | | Respondents of Teachers according to Sex | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Gender | Total | Sample | Percentage | |   | Population |   |   | |   |   |   |   | | Male | 3 | 1 | 33 | |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   | | Female | 9 | 5 | 56 | |   |   |   |   | |   |   |   |   | | Total | 12 | 6 | 89% | |   |   |   |   | Table 5 shows that out of 3 male teachers in Grade IV, only 1 (33%) and 9 female teachers, only 6 (56%) responded to the reading test survey. 28 | Table 6 | | | | Age Respondents of Teachers | | | | | | | | | | | | | Age | No. | Percentage | | | 61 and above | 2 | 33 | | |   |   |   | | |   |   |   | | | 40 – 49 years old | 2 | 33 | | |   |   |   | | |   |   |   | | |   |   |   | | | 30 – 39 years old | 1 | 17 | | |   |   |   | | |   |   |   | | |   |   |   | | | 20 – 30 years old | 1 | 17 | | |   |   |   | | |   |   |   | | | TOTAL | 6 | 100 | | | |   |   | | Table 6 shows that 4 teacher respondents who are 61 and above and 40 — 49 years old (33 each) and 2 teacher respondents who are in 30 — 39 and 20 — 30 age brackets respectively (17 each) are the respondents in this study. | Table 7 | | | Civil Status of Teachers | | | | | | | | | | Status | No. | Percentage | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | Single | 2 | 33 | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | Married | 4 | 67 | |   |   |   | | TOTAL | 6 | 100 | |   |   |   | 29 Table 7 shows that 2 (33) of the teacher respondents are single while 4 (67) of the teacher respondents are married. | Table 8 | | | Educational Attainment of Teachers | | | | | | | | | | Highest Educational | No. | Percentage | | Attainment |   |   | |   |   |   | | BEED/BSED | 2 | 33 | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | With MA units | 3 | 50 | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | M. A. graduate | 1 | 17 | |   |   |   | | TOTAL | 6 | 100 | |   |   |   | Table 8 shows that 3 (50) teacher respondents are holding M. A. units under their professional belt, 2 (33) have their BEED / BSED degree and 1 (17) teacher have an M. A. degree. 30 | Table 9 | | | Professional Rank of Teachers | | | | | | | | | | Professional | No. | Percentage | | Rank |   |   | |   |   |   | | Teacher I | 1 | 17 | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | Teacher II | 3 | 50 | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | Teacher III | 1 | 17 | |   |   |   | |   |   |   | | Master Teacher I | 1 | 17 | |   |   |   | | TOTAL | 6 | 100 | |   |   |   | Table 9 shows that 3 (50) teachers are in the Teacher II positions, while the 2 (17) remaining teachers are in their Teacher I positions and 1 teacher (17) is in the Master Teacher I status respectively. D. Instrumentation Oral Reading Test — an instrument will be use to determine the pupils to read. The researcher will sought the help of the guidance office of the said school to gather data and information on the oral reading test using the PHIL-IRI Reading Inventory for the S. Y. 2008-2009. It is an individually administered reading test consist of a series of graded word lists and passages. 31 Samples of selections from Grade IV were used by the researcher to check the comprehension of the respondents. Questions for the comprehension check-up were prepared in another sheet of paper. The result of the comprehension test will help the researcher in gathering information in the analysis of each individual reading level. Questionnaire — This is where the researcher will prepare the questionnaire checklist based on the specific problems raised and require the respondents to answer how acceptable are the contents of the instrument as to usefulness, clarity, relevance and evaluation. Content of the remedial reading kit consist of varied activities adapted from Dolce Basic Sight words and simple passages that are suited to the slow and non-readers with comprehension questions. Other exercises detect with the pupils skill in noting details, getting the main idea, predicting outcomes of the given events, determining cause and effect and making inferences. E. Procedures The following procedures will be undertaken by the researcher in the conduct of the study. 1. A letter of requests will be submitted to the principal, grade chairman and teacher. After the approval, the reading test will be conducted to respondents to determine the reading level. 2. The teacher-researcher will administer and distribute the questionnaire to the respondents. 3. The teacher-researcher will use a setting where other respondents could not hear the testing. Rapport between the examiner and examinee should be establish in order to put the child at ease to develop his self-confidence. 4. The pupil tested will furnish a copy of the selection to read while the teacher- researcher held another copy to note down his errors. 32 5. The pupil will ask to read orally the solution appropriate to his estimate instructional level. 6. As the pupil reads, mispronounciations, omissions, substitutions, hesitations, And word assists were counted errors. 7. After the pupil’s reading, five type, questions on the paragraph for test of comprehension were asked. 8. Collected data by school. 9. Administering the PHIL-IRI one by one. From this reading test, pupils will be ask to answer series of questions where in their reading level were diagnosed based on the number of questions they have answered. Pupils’ academic performance taken from their average grade in their first and second grading period. F. Statistical Analysis The statistical formula will be use in this study in the interpretation of the results are as follows: 1. Percentage Method — It is used to present the characteristics profile of respondents. % = f x 100 ——- N Where: f = frequency N = number of respondents 100 = constant value / factor 33 2. Ranking — It is used to describe the positional importance of an item in relation to other items. 3. Weighted Mean of Average — A sum of the scores divided by the number of cases. The weighted mean was used to analyze the perceptions of the respondents. WM = f x ——– N Where: f x = Summation of the product of the frequency and its perception scores. N = Number of respondents. 4. Mean — To determine the mean level of the academic performance of pupils’ percentage, standard deviation and mean were used. Arithmetic mean is simply adding together the values of quantitative and dividing the sum number of quantities, Calmorin (1994). The arithmetic mean was computed using the formula: —- X = Σ x —- N Where : X = scores in the test. N = total number of cases 34 4. Standard Deviation — is the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squared deviation of scores from the mean of the distribution, Calmorin (1994). It was calculated by the following formula below: SD = “Σ ( x — x ) ————— N — 1 Where: —- X = arithmetic mean X = scores in the test N = total number of cases 5. To test the effect of pupil’s reading level, chi-square was used. 2 X = Σ (Æ’o — Æ’e ) —————— Æ’e Where: 2 X = chi-square Æ’e = an observed frequency Æ’o = an expected frequency Σ = summation ———————– INPUT Reading Profile of the Grade IV pupils. Word List Passage Comprehension Factors affecting the r؀य़ॷॸদনৄ ৅৴৶ਅਆ਴ਸ਼੒੓ àª�ઃ઄ ચછૉોૠŒà«—૘૙૮૯૰଻ ଽ୻ ୽ஹ஼௾à°�ిూ à±¾à²�ಾà³�ഇഊഌàµ�൓ ൔ 

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