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Herzberg's hygiene motivational model research paper examples

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Herzberg Hygiene Motivational Survey Worksheet
The purpose of this assignment is to examine the factors, which influence motivation according to Herzberg’s Hygiene Motivational Model. Using the textbook, the University Library, the Internet, and/or other resources, answers the following questions. Each team member should begin by taking the Herzberg Hygiene Motivational Survey and posting their results to the assignment link. Your responses to each question will vary but overall should be 700- to 1, 050-words in length. Remember to cite your sources appropriately.
1. Herzberg contended that workplace motivation was the result of the interaction of satisfiers and dissatisfiers. Which satisfiers and dissatisfiers were common among your teammates? How accurately did the survey the factors, which motive you?
Many classical and neo-classical theorists have proposed many motivational theories and models in an anticipation to elaborate and examine the influence of motivation on employee performance at the workplace. Herzberg’s Hygiene motivation model is one of the most widely used motivational model in most organizations. Frederick Herzberg; a psychologists and behaviorist scientists established the model in 1960 and argued that there are two separate set of factors at the workplace, which led to satisfaction while others cause dissatisfaction (Stein, 2009). According to Herzberg, job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not continuum concepts; meaning that an increase of one concept reduces the other, but they influence each other.
In essence, providing factors that cause job satisfaction does not necessary mean that employees become less dissatisfied. In other instances, an increase in job satisfaction factors may lead to an increase in dissatisfaction level. According to the two-factor model commonly known as Herzberg’s motivational model, employees focus on work needs that embrace recognition, achievements, personal advancement, respect, and nature of the work, rather than lower orders needs such as salary, favorable working environment, and security, to mention, but a few. This aspect contradicts Maslow’s hierarchy of human needs that articulate that people should achieve the basic needs before moving to the higher needs (Segadimo, 2006). In the two factor model, Herzberg articulates that job satisfaction relate with the job description and aspect of gratification associated with it. In other words, employees become satisfied and happy when they perform a job that portray aspects of competence, self worth, respect, achievements, and self-actualization. However, absence of gratifying aspects does not directly lead to dissatisfaction, but rather on the related work conditions such as supervision, stringent policies, working environment, and salary and workers relationship. Herzberg established two key job factors that cause satisfaction and dissatisfaction at the workplace and referred as hygiene and motivators factors. Hygiene factors are extrinsic job factors, which help employees, become motivated at the workplace. However, absence of these factors leads to dissatisfaction. Consequently, motivators factors/satisfiers are intrinsic in nature and employees find them rewarding and motivating. They are psychological in nature and help employees work effectively.
In this case, the survey study showed that there are several satisfiers and dissatisfiers /maintenance factors, which were common among the teammates. The survey affirms that most of the teammates conquer with the fact that pay and supervision were the common dissatisfiers factors at the workplace. Most of the teammates indicated that they become dissatisfied when they are lowly paid depending on their job descriptions. In the same breath, the teammate’s response indicated that they are dissatisfied when they are subjected to a high level of supervision at the workplace thus affecting performance.
On the other hand, many team members reported that they become satisfied when they work in a challenging, creative, fascinating, and respectable working environment. In this scenario, teammates pointed out that work, promotion and co-workers act as common satisfiers/motivator factors at the workplace. Largely, team members reported that they become motivated when they are recognized and praised by other co-workers and managers for accomplishing and achieving certain goals at the workplace. Based on this fact, teammates affirm that work, promotion, and co-workers are the common satisfiers/motivator factors while pay and supervision were the common maintenance factors. Unlike maintenance factors, satisfier factors are intrinsic in nature and enable employees to work towards attaining organizational goals effectively. They also encourage personal development through promotions, positive compliment, and rewards.
The study measured motivating factors using scientific methods, which showed high level of reliability and validity. Those factors that motivated teammates had higher score than those factors, which dissatisfied the participants thus showing high level of reliability and validity in the survey.
– 2. How might an industrial/organizational psychologist utilized this type of survey in developing a plan to improve organizational motivations?
Industrial psychologists study employees, workplace, and organizational settings. Motivation is a key factor that helps employees executes their roles, responsibility, and duties diligently. However, industrial psychologist can use information conveyed in the four surveys in several ways. Firstly, develop and implement performance appraisal program. Establishment of this program would motivate employees because it would reward, recognize, and appreciate hardworking employees thus leading to satisfaction (Heinrichs, 2013). For instance, based on the four survey responses, industrial psychologists should develop a performance appraisal program that focus on personal development, promotion, recognition at the workplace and other form of intrinsic motivators. This move would motivate the employees and increase performance in the organization. Secondly, establish salary and enumeration program. Industrial psychologist should advise the management to motivate its employee by increasing their allowances and salary. The four survey responses indicated that team members become dissatisfied when they are poorly paid. Although pay is not one of the satisfier factors, paying employees highly provide the extrinsic motivation that increase satisfaction and enhance productivity. Thirdly, establish open-door policy that would create good working conditions in the organization. Based on the survey analysis, team members reported that they become dissatisfied when they are subjected to high level of supervision and other harsh working conditions. However, establishing open-door policy would motivate employees, as they will be involved in decision-making process where they would advocate for favorable working condition. In most cases, employees become demoralized because they are not involved in the decision making process as they are viewed as subordinate. However, creating this program would promote cordial relationship between the management and employees (Fargus, 2000). Based on these aspects, it is clear that industrial psychologist work towards providing good working conditions to the employees.
3. Compare and contrast Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs with Herzberg’s Hygiene model. How do that differ and what do that have in common? How would a motivational program based upon each approach differ? Provide specific examples

Similarities

Both Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and Herzberg two-factor model share the aspect that humans’ behavior is extrinsic and intrinsic motivated and directed (Koppes, 2007). Maslow argues that humans needs influence them to behave in a goal directed manner and work towards achieving the needs. Herzberg echoes the same arguments that employees have internal needs, which motivate them, interact with others, and perform optimally at the workplace.
Both Maslow need model and Herzberg motivational model use a hierarchical scale. According to Maslow hierarchy of needs, an individual should attain the needs of a lower level before proceeding to the higher ranks. This infers that humans are motivated to achieve more needs when they have attained the lower ones. Similarly, Herzberg articulates that employees become motivated when they attain higher and fulfill needs at the workplace. Jobs that create an avenue for promotion, personal development, and recognition are of higher level that jobs, which focus on pay, working condition and organizational culture.

Differences

Maslow hierarchy of needs has five stages, which should be fulfilled before an individual advances to the next stage. In other words, one should be able to obtain the psychological needs first before achieving higher human needs. On the other hand, Herzberg motivational model has two stages namely; hygiene and motivators.
According to Maslow’s argument, fulfilling a particular need acts as a motivator. This infers that when one attains psychological needs, the individual becomes motivated and work toward achieving the higher human needs in the model. On the other hand, Herzberg argues that fulfilling hygiene factors does not lead to motivation. According to Herzberg, an employee becomes satisfied and motivated after attaining “ motivators” factors such as recognition, achievement, promotion, and personal development.
Industrial psychologies can employ the two models to develop and implement motivational programs. Using the Maslow hierarchy of needs, the industrial psychologists should focus of developing motivational aspects, which are inclined to human needs. For instance, hardworking employees may be motivated when they are reward with food, money, gifts, and other material aspects. On the other hand, using Herzberg model the industrial psychologists should focus on motivator’s factors and not hygiene factors. For instance, the management should motivate employees through promotional strategies, which enhance personal development, recognition, and achievement.

References

Fargus, P. (2000). Measuring and improving employee motivation. London: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Segadimo, G. (2006). Employee motivation at Metropolitan Botswana: a preliminary application of Maslow’s needs-hierarchy theory. New York: Norton.
Stein, R. (2009). Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory of Work Motivation Tested Empirically on Seasonal Workers in Hospitality and Tourism. New York: Elsevier.
Heinrichs, K. (2013). Handbook of moral motivation theories, models, applications. Rotterdam: SensePublishers.
Koppes, L. (2007). Historical perspectives in industrial and organizational psychology. Mahwah, N. J.: Erlbaum

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