Essay, 40 pages (10000 words)

Harlot. haughty. heretic.

HARLOT. HAUGHTY. HERETIC. ————————————————- INTRODUCTION It was a fresh Friday morning – the 19th day of May on the year 1536. A crowd, of more or less a thousand; composed of both commoners and aristocrats, gathered around a scaffold. On this sea of faces, plunged a woman wearing under her petticoat a loose gown of damask trimmed with ermine fur. Whispers began to circulate. The woman was followed by her attendants, all of them weeping while she remained calm and showed no fear at all. She went up the black-clad scaffold, delivered a speech then was blindfolded as she knelt. Her mouth utters the words, “ To Jesus Christ I commend my soul; Lord Jesus receive my soul”, repeatedly. With her lips still in motion, the swordsman stroked his sword and in an instance, the woman was headless. The severed head was then raised by the executioner, holding it in the hair, not for the crowd to see it but for the head to see the crowd and its own body. Such was done at any execution in England during the Middle Ages. It was gruesome and unsightly to see yet also a great spectacle to witness for it was the first public execution of an English queen. Her name was Anne Boleyn. She was the second wife if the Tudor King, Henry VIII and mother of Queen Elizabeth I. She was the key figure to the English Reformation and was famous for her death. During our childhood, we read fictional tales about fairies, princes and princesses, Lively and colorful illustrations on story books fascinates us, making us wish ourselves to be on the book itself. We all believed and waited for happy endings, wherein all the bad guys lost and the good ones celebrate victory. Anne’s life could either be a fairytale; where she, the evil queen, falls down; or a tragedy, wherein a great person like her was lead to destruction by fate. It depends on how you see her. Of course, people have their own opinions. Was she a sinner or a saint? Did she really loved the king or did she only wish for more power? Was she a traitor or was she betrayed? These questions may be answered but the answers will never be accurate. We can study about her but we will never learn the whole and absolute truth. She lived at least five centuries ago and has been dead for 476 years. We can’t simply interview Anne Boleyn, ask her about the controversies around her and certainly, she can’t defend herself from what is written in history. What you are about to read is the story of Anne, not written nor told by herself but a product of thorough research. I’m not here to support on side of an argument but to simply give facts about the events of her life and unravel all possible reasons for her early and, as others say, unjust demise. Use these facts to form your own opinion for all has the right to choose and express their thoughts. The judgment lies on your hands but Anne Boleyn yearned for one thing shortly before her death – “ And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best.” ————————————————- ANNE BOLEYN BIRTH CONTROVERSY Anne Boleyn was quoted as the “ Most Controversial Woman” of her time. And I wouldn’t wonder at all for even her birth date was a center of academic debates. A mistress of King Louis XV of France insisted that there is only one rule in polite society that could never be broken–never ask a pretty woman her age. It may be rude but it is substantial to know when Anne was born. Why is it so? If she had lived in her 80s then her early rise would not have mattered so much and only had she been properly buried, then her birth date might have been recorded. Yet she died early and was laid in an unmarked grave. We must accurately date her birth because it might simply unravel the reasons for her execution. There are many dates proposed by historians. An Italian, writing in 1600, suggested that she was born on 1499 while Sir Thomas More’s son-in-law, William Roper, indicated a much later date of 1512. However, the most debated dates are 1501 and 1507. If Anne Boleyn was born on 1501 then she would have died in 1536 at the age of 35, middle aged by Tudor standards. The more likely reason for her destruction was then politics. She has fewer chances in producing an heir therefore she’ll be a useless queen consort in the next years. Thomas Cromwell, the King’s chief adviser, believes that a new queen is need so he processed a savage yet brilliant plan for Anne. It is possible that the King himself was deceived by outrageous lies. But if we will put her birth on 1507, her age would be 29. It may still sound yet she still has 4-5 years before she could be considered infertile. There’s no explanation why she must be kicked out of the palace, unless Henry’s tired of her. That’s what most believed, that Henry plotted a scheme against her so just he could marry Jane Seymour, one of Anne’s lady-in-waiting. The primary cause for Anne’s invalidated date of birth was the lack of parish records. Such records weren’t kept until the late 16th century. But it wasn’t a great burden to modern historians. There are actually two contemporary sources for the year 1507. It was the basis for the summary of evidences written by Gareth Russell, an author. The first source was the memoirs of Jane Dormer, Duchess of Feria. Jane wasn’t actually born until two years after Anne’s death. For the first 21 years of her life, she was a loyal lady-in-waiting to Anne’s stepdaughter, Mary Tudor. In spite that her hated stepmother was dead, Mary’s tendency to talk about Anne didn’t diminish. When Mary passed away, Dormer married a Spanish aristocrat and moved to Madrid where she died in an old age. Prior to her demise, she had her memoirs recorded by her English secretary, Henry Clifford. There, she specifically stated that Anne was executed on May 19th 1536 and was not yet twenty-nine years of age. It implies that Anne’s birthday is just a few months ahead her execution. The duchess knew that Anne was born on the summer or autumn of 1507 and it was Mary who passed this information to her. Some pointed out the Mary loathed Boleyn so much that she would lie about her at any opportunity given. But why would she ever lie about Anne’s age and make her even younger? The second source would be William Camden, and English writer. Lord Burghley, Queen Elizabeth’s chief minister, suggested that Camden should write a chronicle of Elizabeth’s life and reign. He assured that Camden would be given the free access to his private papers and many of the state archives. In that way, William’s writings have authenticity unlike other works of the period. In the section of Annales, covering Elizabeth’s early life, it is written in a margin that her mother, Anne was born on 1507. Modern-proponents of 1501 hypothesized that the number “ 7″ was a curved number “ 1″. But there’s no reason to misread Camden’s work for the date was written in Roman numerals: MDVII. It is also impossible for Camden and Dormer to be influenced by each other as others might think. The Duchess of Feria dictated her memoirs on 1612, the last year of her life. During that time, William had already researched on his subject and he’s been writing since 1607. Furthermore, the memoirs of Jane were not published until the 19th century while Camden’s writings were only published in London half decade after the duchess’ death in Spain. Therefore, there’s completely no way for them to read each other’s writings. However, there is only one surviving key piece of written evidence of Anne’s real age. It was the letter she sent to her father while she was studying at Mechelen, in the contemporary Netherlands, now Belgium. Here is a list of defense for both 1501 and 1507. 1501 | 1507 | * Above is the image of Anne’s letter to her father. She wrote it on 1514. It is evident that her handwriting was already that of an adolescent. It has small tightly controlled and evenly formed letters. If the other date would be favored, she would only be seven at that time. At such age, no matter how intelligent you are, you would only be able to write in large, uneven scrawl. Moreover, the sentences are lengthy, showing her ability o express complex ideas despite the fact that she wrote it on French, her second language. If she was copying text written by an adult, the handwriting should show hesitation, which it does not. And although there are mistakes, corrections are skillfully inserted between lines that are evenly spaced rather than messily as one could expect from a child. * Anne had been in Hapsburg Empire since 1513. She was a “ fille d’ honneur” or a maid-of-honor to Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Savoy. This fact had been the core of every historian who believes she was born on 1501. Such historians are Eric Ives, Antonia Fraser, Joanna Denny and Alison Weir. It’s simply because the minimum age for a fille d’ honneur was 12 so it is only logical to say that she was a young adult when sent to Mechelen. * A 16th century historian, Nicholas Sanders wrote that Anne was raped by one of her father’s official at Hever Castle, their home, when she was seven. The information was questionable but if it was proven to be true, then a birth of 1507 would place her at Netherlands at the said age. * A woman’s sole purpose in the 1500s was to marry and breed even at an early age. Her advancing age would have been a problem or an embarrassment to her. However, King Henry’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon, was born on 1485. It makes Anne younger by comparison nonetheless being middle-aged when she was married. * In a biography of Henry VIII by Lord Herburt of Cherbury there were contemporaries about Anne. It states that people who knew her says that she was 20 upon returning from France. * Anne might have lied about her age and was believed by people who don’t know her much. Or, some might have guessed her age through her appearance and have stated her to be young to other people. But under the stress of a married life and tumultuous reign, the years have caught up with her and her age, which she had successfully disguised, finally showed. It was proven when a Spanish ambassador described her as “ thin and old” during the last years of her life. * Retha Warnicke cited an examination of a beheaded female (supposed by them to be Anne Boleyn) in 1876. Examiners concluded that she was in her mid-twenties during her death, making the death 1507 favorable. However examination techniques are new to the people during 1876. They have more rooms for errors. Examiners can’t even be certain if the corpse was Anne’s. It’s rumored that Anne’s family took her body out of the Tower compound to bury it somewhere else. If the rumor was true, then the remains that are examined do not belong to Anne. The only assurance that the examiners have is that, like how Anne described herself, the corpse have a little neck. | * Professor Retha Warnicke argues that Anne’s handwriting on the letter was extremely bad, like that of a small child. It also consists of several misspellings and grammar errors. * It’s true that one must be 12 years old to be a maid-of-honor, however, the Archduchess wrote in a letter to Anne’s father:“ I have received your letter by Squire Bouton, who has also presented your daughter to me, who is very welcome … I find her very bright and pleasant for her young age that I am beholden to you for sending her to me that you are to me. “Author Gareth Russell believes that it’s very much pointless for the Archduchess to refer to Anne’s age as exceptionally young if she and the other maid-of-honors have the same age. Futhermore, Anne was nicknamed “ La Petite Boulaine” (The Little Boleyn). It may have been a relation to her delicate figure and she may have been younger than the other girls at the Archduchess’ entourage. Albeit it is unusual to have a six or seven-year-old girl in court, another English girl proved it possible. Her name was Anne Brandon and was born on1506 or 1507. So Anne Boleyn being a maid-of-honor at seven is not that doubtful. And also, Anne couldn’t be called young by the Archduchess if she had already stepped in her teenage years. Author Wendy J. Dunn explains that during that period, 12-year-old girls are legally and biologically women. Their marriages are legitimate and can be consummated. This is the same reason why Anne was escorted by Claude Bouton when she was sent to Hapsburg Empire. Claude was a nobleman. They let a man escort her because she’s only a child unlike when she’s already a woman, a female chaperone will be required instead. * Boleyn had also served the Queen of France. She became friends with the Queen’s younger sister, Princess Renee. Later in life, the Princess remarked that she had a special attachment to Elizabeth I because of her friendship with Anne. Renee was born on 1510 and it seems unlikely that she would be friends with a person 9 years her senior. * It would have been very implausible for Anne to remain unmarried for a long time. She was of noble birth, very attractive, charming and witty. Furthermore, her siblings were betrothed at 19 or 20. Her father * wouldn’t let her marry in a late age. * When the news of the King marrying Anne Boleyn sparked, objections were thrown. Many queried her ancestry, as it was insufficiently grand; her religion, her friends, her foreign sympathies, her sister’s private life was questioned too. Other’s even made up issues. But none cited her being too old to bear a child because she was undeniably still in her fertile years. * Most palace servants during the 1520s referred to her as “ young”, “ very young”, “ young and good-looking”, “ youthful” and a cardinal even called her “ girl” which is a lot different from a “ woman”. * During the Feast of Saint Andrew in 1531, Anne complained her youth was passing her by. Such comment would raise eyebrows if she’s already in her thirties, because if that’s the case, her would have left her a long, long time ago. * The comment of the Spanish ambassador was spiteful and was only caused by her miscarriage a month ago which made her looked haggard. And a few months later during her execution, comments about her youthful appearance was made again. | Both sides have strong evidence. The accounts of the Duchess of Feria and Camden’s work claims it to be 1507 while Anne’s letter shows a mature handwriting like that of someone who would likely to be born on 1501. One thing’s sure, though. It is that Anne was sent to abroad in 1513, returned to London in 1522, ahe was engaged to Henry in 1527, became a queen and a mother in 1533 and executed in 1536. Since it is only in the years that we are certain, then it would be used here rather than her age. ————————————————- ————————————————- FAMILY GENEALOGY AND EARLY LIFE According to Eric Ives, Anne Boleyn was certainly more of noble birth than Henry VIII’s other English wives namely Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard and Catherine Parr. Anne Boleyn was a daughter to Thomas Boleyn and Elizabeth Howard. Thomas Boleyn was an ambitious, learned, disloyal, coward and selfish courtier. He was a well-respected diplomat with a gift of languages and was a favorite of Henry VIII. Thomas Boleyn * Took up arm in the 12th year of King Henry VII’s reign, with his father and other persons of rank against Cornish rebels until the beginning of the reign of the next king, HenryVIII. * One of the Knight of King’s Body and constituted Governor of Castle of Norwich, which he held jointly with Sir Henry Watt, master of the King’s Jewel-house. * In the nest year, he was one of the ambassadors to Emperor Maximillian. * First Earl of Wiltshire and was made Constable of Norwich Castle. * On June 18, 1525 he was titled Viscount of Rochford, as Knight of Garter in December 1525. * He was also made Earl of Ormonde and was also nominated to the Positions of Lord Privy-seal. Thomas Boleyn choose to marry well. His bride was Elizabeth Howard who almost shares with him the same personality. She was also ambitious and proud. Elizabeth Howard * Managed to survived the fall of her family’s Patron, Richard III * Part of Royal Court of Elizabeth of York, Henry VIII’s mother and became a lady-in-waiting to Henry VIII’s wife, Catherine of Aragon. * Has been pregnant for several times but only 3 children survived. * Due to her attractive appearance, it was that she had been a mistress of Henry VIII and Anne was a daughter of the King. It was denied by Henry and never mentioned it in the dispensation he sought to make his union with Anne lawful. It could be possible that she was just confused with Elizabeth Blount. The Boleyn family was highly respected in the English aristocracy. There are different spellings for their surname. In France, Anne was listed as “ Anna de Boullan” and also at the court of Margaret of Austria. In most of her portraits, she was referred as “ Anna Bolina” which is Latin. The original spelling, though, was “ Bullen”, from the bull on their coat-of-arms. During that era, people learned to read before they write. They were emtirely different skills. That’s why when they spell, they base it to how the words are pronounce. The reason for the change from Bullen to Boleyn was because the next generation acquired greater writing skills. It is possible that the “ Bullen” signatures on the documents are works of clerks and they didn’t know the correct spelling of the surname. Anne Boleyn’s Family Tree The Howards, too, are pre-eminent people in England. As seen on the family tree at the previous page, Anne’s Howard ancestors included the dukes of Norfolk and King Edward I. Boleyn Relatives 1. Thomas Boleyn of Salle * He was from Blicking, Norfolk Country like all other Boleyns. 2. Geoffrey Boleyn * He was also born on Norfolk * A wealthy mercer in London before becoming the Lord Mayor in 1458 * In 1462 he bought Hever Castle which was originally built in 1270. He worked on repairing the damages from which the castle suffered over the years. Howard Relatives 1. Sir John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk * A man of average height, with strong square face * A nobleman, soldier and first Howard Duke of Norfolk * Close friend and loyal supporter of King Richard III with whom he died in combat at the Battle if Basworth Field. 2. Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk * Had served four monarchs as a soldier and statesman. Anne’s siblings were Mary and George Boleyn. As much as Anne’s year of birth was uncertain, so are her siblings’. Their order of birth was also unknown but Mary was believed to be the eldest sister, especially by her children. Mary’s birthdate was usually placed on 1499 while George’s was around 1504. If Anne as born 1501, all Boleyn children were born at Blicking Hall. But if 1507 will be the date, she was born at Hever Castle since her family moved there on 1504 or 1505. Hever Castle was her childhood home. It is where she first education. Like other women from her class, Anne learned arithmetic, her family genealogy, grammar, history, reading, spelling and writing. She engaged in sports such as archery, falconry, horseback riding, and hunting. She was taught to play dice, chess and cards. Above all, she was trained on being a housewife, as it was the destiny of every woman of her era. She studied domestic skills like dancing, embroidery, needlework, music, singing, good manners and household management. It was a training that continued on foreign countries. ————————————————- LEARNING FROM FOREIGNERS To be furthermore a “ proper” lady and find the “ right” man to marry, Anne Boleyn was sent to foreign courts as it is where she would receive the perfect education. Anne’s first trip to abroad was when she was sent to Hapsburg Empire in 1513. Sea travel was difficult and it was thought that Anne despised it. Howbeit, it was worth it for she was able to prove herself to the regent Margaret of Austria, who grew very fond of her. She quickly learned French, the language her father wanted her to master. Meanwhile, at her homeland, King Henry VIII was arranging a marriage for her 18-year-old sister, Mary Tudor and 52-year-old King of France, Louis XIII. This marriage will seal allegiance to England and France. When Mary left, a household of English attendants was required. Sir Thomas Boleyn knew that France has the mist refined court and it will aid him in his aim for greater power and status. So by the winter of 1514 or 1515, Anne left the regent’s court and was transferred to France. Because Mary Boleyn was part of the wedding retinue too; Anne was reunited with her sister. It was here where their differences grew apparent. The younger Boleyn made use of her learned skill and served as an interpreter for the newly-wed Mary Tudor and her stepdaughter, Claude. But her sister was lead to a different path. She acquired a tarnished reputation by being the mistress of Franics I, Claude’s husband. The royal marriage didn’t last. In less than three months, Louis XII died. He had no son and the Sallic Law prevented Claude, his eldest daughter to inherit the throne. The widowed Mary didn’t grieved at all. She didn’t even want to marry Louis XII at the first place. Her heart was already set for Charles Brandon, the Duke of Suffolk. So when her brother sent Brandon, they wed secretly. It infuriated Henry VIII but eventually, he forgave them. Like all other attendants, Mary Boleyn left with the Tudor princess. She came home with disgrace and Anne vowed never to follow her example. As for Anne, she stayed in France and served the new queen. Eric Ives ponders that during Anne’s service as an interpreter; Claude took a liking of her and offered her a place at the court. Eric Ives also points out that little are relatively known about this new period in Anne’s life. Anne was commonly linked to Briare, a town on the river Loire, and also with the village of Brii-sous-Forges where there was a tower called Tour d’ Anne Boleyn. A French website claims that the tower was the only remaining part of the medieval castle which was occupied by Anne prior to her marriage to Henry VIII. The castle was a property of Du Moulin, a friend of Anne’s parents. It was supported by Julien Brodeau, a French historian who wrote that Anne was educated in the home of a noble, Philippe de Moulin de Brie, a relation to her parents. Nicholas Sanders further wrote in his work that Anne was placed “ under the care of a certain nobleman not far from Brie”. He also writes that “ soon afterwards she appeared at the French court, where she was called the English Mare, because of her shameless behavior and the Royal Mule, when she acquainted with the King of France”. However, it was Mary Boleyn who was called by the King as “ English Mare” and “ una grandissima ribald, infame sopra tutte” (a great and infamous whore). Sanders could possibly have been confused between the Boleyn sisters. Sarah Tytler, also a historian, stated that Anne went at a convent at Brie. However, Alison Weir believes it was just another confusion and hypothesized that it was Mary who entered the convent. It was due to the Boleyns’ disappointment on her obnoxious behavior. The said convent was at Brie. But Eric Ives presumes that there was another reason for Anne’s linkage to Briare. He believes that Anne obviously accompanied Queen Claude during her pregnancies at Chateau de Amboise and later Blois, which are both at the Upper Loire Area like Briare. It must have been the basis for such linkage. On June 1520, a famous meeting between the French and English kings took place. It was called the Field of Cloth of Gold. Anne must have been there with the French queen Claude. It was also possible that it is where she first saw her future husband, King Henry VIII. But it wasn’t her who has the King’s attention, but Mary, her sister. Her father and brother were also present in the meeting. However, the said meeting held no political significance and was merely for show only. In the seven years of Anne Boleyn’s thriving in France, she was greatly influenced by the culture, ideas and women around her. Most definitely, it was Queen Claude who influenced her greatly. Claude fulfilled her duty as a woman and as a queen consort. She was pregnant seven times, five children survived: three males and two females. She lived her life with chaste and turned a blind eye to her husband’s philandering. Pierre de Bourdeille, seigneur de Brantome , described her as “ the most worthy and honorable queen that has been since Queen Blanche, mother of the King Saint-Louis”. She was very sage and virtuous. Claude was also described as to be very good, very charitable, very gentle to all, never doing any unkindness or harm to anyone at her court or at her kingdom. Claude loved illuminated manuscripts and so was Anne Boleyn. It was her who made Anne’s loved for manuscripts to blossom even more. Anne Boleyn went on to have her own illuminations and books and was made in Renaissance style, like the Queen’s. Another woman who touched her life was the King’s sister, Marguerite d’ Angouleme. She was known as a “ perfect beauty”, “ a rare princess”, and was “ full of majesty and eloquence…full of charming grace in gay and witty speech…queen in all things”. She out skilled her brother, Francis I, in languages such as Greek, Latin and Hebrew and also in modern languages. When a religious reform lead by Martin Luther in Germany took place, Marguerite gained fervor for the New Leanings. She also has interest on arts and was famed with her poem “ Le miroir l’ame pechesesse”. It is about her protestant ideas and the way she sees God as a brother, father or lover. However, she didn’t break off with the Catholic Church for she was disgusted with the violence of some Protestant movements. Nonetheless she believes in the reform and was quoted as to “ never waver from the position she took up through the years…of the protector the new learning and the humble devotee of religion which was pure and undefiled”. Anne Boleyn also fostered friendship with the Queen’s young sister, Renee. It was claimed that Anne and Renee could have shared lessons but it was unlikely because Renee is a princess while Anne’s just a court lady of the Queen. Nonetheless, both were Reformists. Anne also got to see a strong, politically active woman in the form of Louise of Savoy, the mother of Francis I and Marguerite. She was an intelligent and ambitious mother, making sure her children ha d a Renaissance education and assuring her son’s succession. Louise and Marguerite are considered the most powerful woman in the court. But it wasn’t just the female monarchs who had impact in her life. There was also Diane de Poitiers, who also served Claude. Diane had a Renaissance Humanist Education. It is unknown whether she was close to Anne but both have a love for learning and music. Sir Thomas Boleyn didn’t make a mistake in sending Anne to the French court. She obtained skills and ideas of different kinds and became an accomplished woman. Anne Boleyn was no longer a country girl, she is now and educated and cultivated Renaissance lady that will stun England in her return. ————————————————- COMING HOME With war between France and England imminent, Anne went home. Upon her return, her father had her arranged to marry James Butler, her cousin several years older than her. The marriage was suggested by King Henry VIII to settle the issue of who shall inherit the Earldom of Ormond, if it won’t be resolved, it could cause civil war. It all started when Thomas Butler died, leaving the earldom to his daughters: Margaret Butler, who married William Boleyn (see Anne Boleyn’s family tree); and Anne St. Leger. Thomas Boleyn being the son of the eldest daughter insisted that he is the righteous heir yet James’ father, Pier Butler also claims the Earldom of Ormond for being the great-great grandson. The only solution that will be beneficial to all, including the King himself, was the union of Anne and James. However, for some reasons that are unknown, the arrangements led to failure. Anne’s father sent her to his native country, Ireland. She was summoned back to become a lady-in-waiting to Henry’s first wife, Catherine of Aragon. Anne Boleyn made her debut to the court at a masquerade ball on March 1522. She performed and elaborate dance performance with Mary Tudor, the King’s sister; Mary Boleyn, the current mistress and other court ladies. Things she learned in France, such as music, dance and style made her quite popular especially among the younger men. Eric Ives quotes Lancelot de Carles in his biography about Anne, “ She knew perfectly how to sing and dance, to play the lute and other instruments”. Nicholas Sanders stated, “ She was handsome to look at with a lovely mouth, amusing in her ways, playing well on the lute and was a good dancer. She was the model and mirror of those who were at court, for she was always well-dressed and everyday made some change in the fashion of her garments”. Anne, indeed, was a trendsetter and designed much of her clothing. All ladies at the court followed her example. And more than being a musician, she was also a gifted poet. A few pieces still exist that were believed to be made by her. Most people are only attracted to her charisma, not her appearance which is not that great. ————————————————- PERSONALITY AND LOOKS Anne wasn’t a great beauty; it was her sister, Mary who held such title in their family. She was thin and to be thin is only appropriate for the poor. During the 16th century, a pretty woman has blonde hair, blue eyes and pale skin. Anne was the opposite; she has a thick dark brown hair and dark brown eyes. Her complexion was dark-olive and even too much darker for others. A dark skin was also an attribute of the poor for it was only them who work under the sun. She was of average height, has small breasts and a long, elegant neck. Historians described her as, “ She was never described as a great beauty, but even those who loathed her admitted that she had a dramatic allure. Her dark complexion and black hair gave her an exotic aura in a culture that saw milk-white paleness as essential to beauty. Her eyes were especially striking: ‘ black and beautiful’ wrote one contemporary, while another averred they were ‘ always most attractive’ and that she ‘ well knew how to use them with effect’”. Another goes like this, “ Anne’s charm lay not so much in her physical appearance as in her vivacious personality, her gracefulness, her quick wit and other accomplishments. She was petite in stature and had an appealing fragility about her…she shone at singing, making music, dancing and conversation…Not surprisingly, the young men swarmed around her”. As much as her appearance was unique, her character was different too. A 16th century lady is sweet-tempered, silent and subservient. While Anne is witty, intelligent, proud, brave, quick-tempered, stubborn, ambitious and haughty. However, she was also pious, in love with religion, with the gospel and church. She gives generously to charity and sews shirts for the poor. In younger years, Anne was sweet and cheerful and enjoyed gambling, drinking wine, and gossiping. She had a heart for luxury and power. “ To us she appears inconsistent–religious yet aggressive, calculating yet emotional, with the light touch of the courtier yet the strong grip of politician…A woman in her own right–taken on her own terms in a man’s world; a woman who mobilized her education. Her style and her presence to outweigh the disadvantages of her sex; of only moderate good looks but taking a court and a king by storm. Perhaps, in the end, it is Cromwell’s assessment that comes nearest: intelligence, spirit and courage”. There were also legends about her looks. It was debated if she really had a sixth finger growing from her small finger and a large mole on her neck. Some say she even had a third breast. By that era, it was considered to be signs of a witch. These deformities were hid by her through new fashions–long sleeves for the extra finger and a black velvet ribbon for the mole. ————————————————- LOVE AFFAIRS Courtly love and chivalric romance was a practice during the early medieval period. The majority of noble marriages were arranged, with the focus being on financial and political gain. Courtly love allows someone, no matter his or her status being ‘ married’ or ‘ not’, to express true, heartfelt affections. It was a gentle, parrying game of flirtation. The ‘ perfect’ knight, was supposed to sublimate his relations with the ladies of the court by choosing a ‘ mistress’ and serve her faithfully and exclusively. He wooed her with poems, songs and gifts, and he might receive a token of love from her, wear it in a tournament and joust in her honor. But the suitor must expect for only one thing in return–kindness. His reward would only be understanding and platonic friendship. Howbeit, such can progress to something more serious, deeper connection. Courtly love saw a revival during the Tudor era. And Anne herself experienced some of it , which all developed further. – THOMAS WYATT Thomas Wyatt was a poet. He and Anne did become acquainted but them, having a love affair was still a question. Thomas was said not to enjoy his wife, Elizabeth. He fell in love with Anne and wrote poems that are embedded with events from her life. But he knew Henry VIII has eyes for Anne. Once there was an incident during the game of bowls. It was a game wherein you have to roll a biased ball and it should stop near a “ kitty” or “ jack”, a smaller ball. In the game, Thomas used Anne’s ribbon and bauble to mark distance. He purposely did it to provoke or test Henry’s jealousy. As any would expect, Henry went furious and ranted. And so Thomas Wyatt wrote, “ written in her fair neck round about ‘ Noli me tangere, Caesar’s I am’”. He was sent, or was requested by him, to Italy for diplomatic missions. – HENRY PERCY While in service to Queen Catherine of Aragon, Anne met Henry Percy, a young man who also worked at the court. He courted Anne and soon they were secretly engaged. It was said that Henry was already betrothed to the daughter of the earl of Shrewsbury. And so his father, the earl of Northumberland refused to support his engagement with Anne. But Cardinal Wolsey, Henry VIII’s chief minister was most blamed for the break-up. The King wished to have Anne’s hand in marriage, too. Albeit, not all historians and biographers believe in such, for the evidences, from Mary Boleyn and her husband, William Carey, indicates that the King was with an affair with Mary during the time the secret betrothal was made. It makes Henry VIII impossible to be attracted to Anne. Yet there is an account supporting the fact that it was Wolsey who did broke off their romance. It was written by George Cavendish, a gentleman-usher of Wolsey. The account is as follows: I will tell you as best I can how the king’s love came about and what followed thereafter. When this lady, Mistress Anne Boleyn, was very young, she was sent to France to be a lady-in-waiting to the French queen. When the queen died, she was sent back to her father who arranged her to become a lady-in-waiting to Queen Catherine, wife of Henry. Such was her success in this post, shown both by her exemplary behavior and excellent deportment that she quickly outshone all others. To such extent, in fact, that the flames of desire began to burn secretly in the King’s breast, unknown to all, least of all Anne herself. At this time Lord Percy the son and heir of the earl of Northumberland, was aide and secretary to Wolsey, the lord cardinal, and whenever the lord cardinal happened to be at court, Lord Percy would pass the time in the queen’s quarter where he would dally with the ladies-in-waiting. Of these, he was most familiar of Mistress Anne Boleyn, to such an extent that secret love grew up between them and they pledged that, in time, they intended to wed. When knowledge of this reached the kings ears he was greatly distraught. Realizing he could no longer hide his secret love, he revealed all to the Lord Cardinal Wolsey and discussed with him ways of sundering the couple’s engagement to each other. When the lord cardinal had left the court and returned to Westminster, he remembered Henry’s request and summoned Lord Percy to his presence, saying in front of us, his servants: “ I am amazed at your foolishness in getting entangled, even engaged, to this silly girl at court–I mean Anne Boleyn. Have you not considered your position? After the death of your noble father you stand to inherit one of the greatest earldoms in the country. It would thus have been more proper if you sought the consent of your father in this affair and to have made his highness the king privy to it, requesting his royal blessing. Had you done so, he was not only have welcomed your request but would, I can assure you, have promoted you to a position more suited to your noble estate. And thence, you might have gained the king’s favor by your conduct and wise council and thus risen further still in his estimation. But now look what you have done by your thoughtlessness. You have not only offended your father but also your sovereign and pledged yourself to someone whom neither would agree to be suitable. And do not doubt that I shall send for your father and when he comes he will break off this engagement or disinherit you forever. The king himself will make a complaint to your father and demand no less an action that I have suggested. Indeed, I happen to know that the king has already promised this lady to someone else and that though she is not yet aware of it, the arrangements are already far advanced. The king, however being a man of great prudence and diplomacy, is confident that, once she is aware of the situation, she will agree to the union gladly”. “ Sir, ” Lord Percy said, weeping, “ I knew nothing of the King’s involvement in all this, and I am sorry to have incurred his displeasure. I have considered myself of sufficient age and in a good enough situation to be able to take a wife of my own choosing and never doubted that my father would gave accepted my decision. And though she is just a simple made and her father is only a knight, yet she is of very noble descent. On her mother’s side she has Norfolk blood and on her father’s side she is a direct descendant of the earl of Ormond. Why, then Sir, should I query the suitability of the match when her pedigree is of equal worth to mine? Thus I humbly beg your favor in this matter and ask you to beg the king to be benevolent concerning this issue of my engagement, which I cannot deny, still less break it off? ” “ See gentlemen, ” said the lord cardinal to us, “ what nonsense there is in this willful boy’s head! I thought that when you heard me explain the king’s involvement in this business you would have relented in your suit and have submitted yourself to the king’s will, allowing his highness to decide on the matter as he thinks fit”. “ Sir, and so I would, ” said Lord Percy, “ but in this matter I have gone so far that I am no longer able to renounce my commitment in full conscience”. “ What? ” said the cardinal, “ Do you think that the king and I do not know what to do in such a serious matter as this? One thing’s for sure, I can see no point in your making any further pleas in this case”. “ Very well”, said Lord Percy, “ if it will please you, I will submit myself completely to the King’s will in this matter and will release my conscience from the heavy burden of the engagement”. “ So be it, then, ” said the cardinal, “ I will send for your father in the north, and he, the king and I will take whatever measure for the annulment of this hasty folly the King thinks necessary. And in the meantime, I order you – and in the king’s name command you – not see her again if you intend to avoid the full wrath of his majesty”. Having said this, he got up and went off to his study. Then the earl of Northumberland was sent for, who learning the request being at the King’s command, made great speed to court. His first port of call after leaving the north was to lord cardinal, by whom he was briefed about the cause of his hasty summons and with whom he spent considerable time in secret discussions. After their long talk, the cardinal ordered some wine and after they had drunk together the meeting broke up and the earl left. As he was leaving, he sat down on a bench that the servants used and called his son Lord Percy to him, saying, in our presence, “ Son, you have always been a proud, presumptuous, headstrong wastrel. And you have so proved yourself once more. What possible joy, comfort, pleasure or solace could I ever receive from you who have misconducted yourself without discretion and in such secrecy. With no regard for your own father, nor for your sovereign to whom all honest and loyal subjects give faithful and humble obedience, nor even for your own noble estate, you have ill-advisely become engaged to this girl and thereby incurred the king’s displeasure– an action intolerable in any of his subjects! If it wasn’t for the wisdom of the king and his benevolence towards your empty-headedness and willful stupidity, his wrath would have been sufficient to cast me and all my family for generations to come into abject poverty and desolation. But by the supreme kindness of his grace and the worthy lord cardinal , I have been excused your transgression – they have decided to pity your stupidity rather than blame it – and have presented me with a command concerning you and your future conduct. I pray to God that this may serve as sufficient warning to you to conduct yourself with more care, hereafter, for I can assure you that, if you do not amend your ways, you will be the last earl of Northumberland if I have anything to do with it. You do nothing but waste and consume everything that everything your ancestors have built up and cherished with great honor, but in the name of the gracious King, I intend–God willing–so to arrange my succession that you will benefit from it little. For I have no intention, I can assure you, of making you my heir. I have, after all, praise be to God, a wide choice of sons who will, I am sure, prove themselves worthier than you and abler to conduct themselves as true noble should. And from these I will choose the best as my successor. Now gentlemen, ” he said to us servants, “ It may happen so that when I am dead you will see things that I have spoken of to my son prove to be the case. Yet in the meantime, I would be grateful if you could be his friends and tell him when he strays from the path or is at fault. ” And with that he took his leave of us and said to his son: “ Go on your way and serve the lord cardinal, your master, and make sure you carry out your duty”. And thus he departed and went down through the hall and out of his barge. After so much debate and consultation about Lord Percy’s case it was finally decided that his engagement to Anne Boleyn should be dissolved and that he should instead marry one of the earl of Shrewsbury’s daughters, Mary Talbot, which he later did. Cavendish’s account ends here. The break-up in 1523 resulted to Percy’s grim marriage and Anne’s hatred for Wolsey. She was banished from court until 1524 or 1525, only to learn that the King was already captivated by her. She did her best to escape his advances. But she thought naturally, “ If I could not be an earl’s wife, then why not try for the crown of England? ” – HENRY VIII The longest game of courtly love was played by Anne Boleyn and Henry VIII. It is unknown when the king first caught eye of Anne. He started his courtship with sending love letters. These letters were undated and were found at the Vatican Library, possibly stolen from Anne and sent to the papacy when Henry VIII asked for annulment of his marriage to Catherine. Anne’s replies however were lost. The letters were written in French. “ My mistress and friend: I and my heart put ourselves in your hands, begging you have to them suitors for your good favor, and that your affection for them should not grow less through absence. For it would be a great pity to increase their sorrow since absence does it sufficiently, and more than I ever could have thought possible reminding us of a point in astronomy, which is, that the longer the days are the farther off the sun, and yet more fierce. So it is with our love, for by absence we are parted, yet nevertheless, it keeps it fervor, at least on my side, and I hope on yours also: assuring you that on my side ennui of absence is already too much for me: and when I think of the increase of what I must needs suffer it would be well high unbearable for me were it not for the firm hope I have and as I cannot be with you in person, I am sending you the nearest possible thing to that, namely, my picture set in a bracelet, with the whole device you already know. Wishing myself in their place when it shall please you. This by the hand of Your loyal servant and friend H. Rex. ” “ No more to you at thus present mine own darling lack at time but that I would you were in my arms or I in yours for I think it long since I kissed you. Written after the killing of an hart at a xj. of a clock minding with God’s grace tomorrow mightily timely to kill another: by the hand of him which I trust shortly shall be yours Henry R. ” “ Mine own sweetheart, these shall be to advertise you of the Great loneliness that I find here since your departing, for I ensure you methinketh the time longer since your departing now last than I was won’t do a whole fortnight: I think your kindness and my fervents of love causeth it, for otherwise I would not have thought it possible that for so little awhile it should have grieved me, but now that I am coming toward you methinketh my pains been half released…wishing myself (specially an evening) in my sweetheart’s arms, whose pretty dukkys I trust shortly to kiss. Written by the hand of him that was, is, and shall be yours by his will. H. R” Henry signs his name with “ Rex” which is Latin for “ king”. In the last letter shown, the king commented “ pretty dukkys” which he meant as breasts. It is hard to tell if Anne did allow the king to kiss her bosom. Some would say she did whenever her wish was granted but there were also disagreements and believes that Anne and Henry VIII didn’t become intimate until their secret wedding. These letters show his great love for Anne, for the King actually loathed writing. The king wants Anne as his mistress, which she refused. She learned much of her sister’s example. Mary was said to have been pregnant with the King’s bastard son, Henry Carey, though there were no evidence to support such but the comments of his resemblance with Henry VIII. Anne rejected him, “ I beseech your highness most earnestly to desist, and to this my answer in good part. I would rather lose life than my honesty”. What she wanted was legitimacy of her union with him and of their future children. It was hard for the King, who expected her to give in for just a few months. But as Capellanus, a 12th century author, listed in the rules of courtly love: “ The easy attainment of love makes it of little value; difficulty of attainment make it prized”. And it was pretty much surprising that Anne was able to keep Henry VIII’s feelings for a long time despite of her refusals. He also wants a lawful son who could inherit the throne. His wife Catherine failed to do so and gave him only a daughter, Mary. He didn’t want to have problems with succession and what he fears most was a battle like that of the War of Roses. In the said war, the rival branches of the royal house of Plantagent: the Lancaster and York fought over the throne. The Lancaster had the heraldic symbols of a red rose and a white one for the York, hence, the battle’s name. His father, Henry VII defeated Richard II. He married Elizabeth of York, joining the two houses and the Tudor dynasty started. Yet in 1527, Henry discussed the invalidity of his marriage to Catherine. Catherine was originally married to Henry’s brother, Arthur of Wales. But she was widowed at the age of 16. Arthur died at 15 due to consumption, diabetes or sweating sickness. With alliance of Spain and England still being desired, Pope Julius II dispensed the marriage, declaring that it was still not consummated, therefore, Henry VIII could still marry his brother’s widow. However, Henry VIII now found it incestuous and that’s why God punished them by giving only a daughter. Catherine did gave birth to sons but all were either stillborn or died shortly after birth. Though his reason was really against the Bible, many concluded that Henry only did such to marry Anne Boleyn. ————————————————- THE ANNULMENT As papal legate, Cardinal Wolsey was sent to Rome to make the appeal. The cardinal himself, wished for the annulment. He wanted a union with France. He planned to betroth Henry VIII to a French princess or if not, a great lady form the English court would do. But Anne Boleyn didn’t join his list. He hated her; she felt the same. His appeal came on three fronts. First he persuaded the Pope that Henry and Catherine’s marriage was clearly opposed to the Bible, in the book of Leviticus. Leviticus 20: 21 states, “ If a man marries his brother’s wife, it is an act of inquiry; he dishonored his brother. They will be childless”. Second, Wolsey claimed the original dispensation to be incorrectly worded thus protesting about its technicalities. However, a correctly worded version was found in Spain shortly afterwards. Lastly, he requested the Pope to allow the final decision to be made in England and he the papal legate will supervise it. In 1528, the pope granted his request to decide the outcome in England. He and Cardinal Campeggio were assigned, as papal legates, to work on it. Wolsey had his decision; however, Campeggio took a long time to arrive and delayed the proceedings. The case was postponed in July 1528. Anne and the King had waited so long and Anne had suspicions about Wolsey’s loyalty. The cardinal was arrested and the Pope decided the final decision, and also official one, to be done in Rome. Wolsey was stripped of his titles, leaving behind the title of Archbishop of York. And with the rumors of the delayed annulment proceedings present at the court, Henry VIII knew that nothing more is to be hidden. By 1530, Anne was openly honored by the King at the court. She was accorded precedence over all other ladies, and she sat with the King at banquets and hunts. She was given the title of Marquess of Pembroke on September 1532. It was a great change because aside from the letters, the King would also give her gifts which include his first love token – a mini whistle . It has a shape of a pistol with cosmetic tools and a salt spoon within the barrel. Another was an ornate clock. The king also eats alone with her, pays her gambling debts and she began to wear expensive gowns. However during a state visit at France, the French ladies refused to meet with her. Meanwhile, Catherine of Aragon was virtually ignored yet she continues on her wifely duties. She personally mends Henry’s shirt and sends him gifts and notes. Henry VIII was displeased of the long proceedings. Pope Clement VII, the current pope, was also having a hard time. Charles V of Spain, Catherine’s nephew, was pressuring the Pope not to grant the annulment. Due to the Sack of Rome, the Pope was more afraid of Charles V than Henry VIII. He then didn’t grant the request for annulment, giving the reason that a pope cannot annul a marriage on basis of a canonical impediment previously dispensed. This gave way for Anne’s Reformist views to be heard. ————————————————- BREAK WITH ROME Anne Boleyn, with influence of France still with her, spoke out and suggested an alternative to the King. She put forward the idea of the monarch leading not just the state but also the church. Henry could deny Papal authority like William Tyndale, a religious radical, did. With this being the only answer to the problem, Henry VIII broke with Rome and declared himself as leader of the Church of England, putting an end to Catholicism in the country. He appointed Thomas Crammer as the new Archbishop of Canterbury. He implemented the Act of Supremacy 1534 that recognizes him as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. The act also required an oath of loyal from English subjects that recognized his marriage to Anne Boleyn. All who refused to pledge are executed; one of them was Thomas More. With no obstacles on the run, Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn finally had their wedding on January 25, 1533 in London. It was a private ceremony, in accordance to the Royal Book. It was said that Anne was already pregnant with Elizabeth that time. Many disapproved it with the fact she didn’t want to be just thrown away like her sister. Others associate this rumor with another rumor that Henry and Anne were already secretly married. It was said to take place on November 14, 1532 after their visit to France. Thomas Cranmer, who also annulled the marriage of Catherine to Henry, made this union legal despite of the Pope’s disapproval. Soon pamphlets were distributed. It was about the coronation. It was printed by London printer Wynkin de Worde in 1533. Its front page contains the words: “ The Noble Tryumphaunt Coronacyon of Quene Anne – Wyfe unto the Noble Kynge Henry the VIII”. The coronation was a lavish affair that too k place on May 28, 1533. Anne was first brought to the Tower of London. She arrived with great pomp and ceremony, people bowed their heads for her, cannons were firing to announce her triumph and her enraptured husband greeted her with a kiss. Henry led her to her new apartments that were re-decorated just for her coronation week to the equivalent of 1. 28 Euros (2 million dollars). And like the tradition in monarch coronations, she went to Westminster Abbey from the Tower through a procession. But the people of London are unimpressed. They mocked at the tapestries by shouting “ HA! HA! ” because the designs were Henry and Anne’s initials entwined. “ How liked you the look of the city? ” asked Henry to his new queen. She replied, “ Sir, I liked the city well enough – but I saw a great many caps on heads and heard but few tongues”. ————————————————- ANNE BOLEYN AS QUEEN It was not only the people of England – wealthy or poor – who despised the New Queen on the throne. She was a gossip of all Europeans. Anne was the scapegoat for the king’s wrong decisions: his annulment and change in religion. But the King is still a king; he therefore has the control of his decisions. However, the people find it easier to hate Anne than their monarch. Pope Clement VII excommunicated Henry VII and Thomas Cranmer. Anne Boleyn was highly criticized and condemned and so was her marriage. On March 1534, the Pope declared the legitimacy of Catherine’s marriage and commanded Henry to go back to her. But the King wouldn’t listen. Instead, he sent Catherine to Kimbolton Castle on April 1524 when she refused to recognize Anne as queen. When Henry ordered her to relinquish certain jewels (which are property of the crown) to Anne Boleyn, Catherine replied, “ I will not give them up to a person who is the scandal of Christendom and a disgrace to you”. Henry only referred to her as Dowager Princess of Wales but she called herself until her death as “ Henry’s only lawful wedded wife and England’s only rightful queen”. Catherine’s supporters were actually numerous. They liked her solemn piety but none of them can face their King’s wrath. Even at her death, many mourned for her. Unlike to Catherine, Anne was loathed for her abrasive personality. Anne wasn’t popular at court. One of her allies was Thomas Cromwell. Other than this Protestant man, Anne only relied to the King and his affection. Without him, she would be nothing. However, she enjoyed her victory as best as she could. Royals presided on extravagant courts to display the strength of monarchy. Multiple palaces were renovated to suit her taste. Catherine’s badge of pomegranates was replaced with her falcon symbol. She ordered new blue and purple livery for her servants. She spent a huge sum on gowns, jewels, headdresses, riding equipments and the finest furniture and upholsteries from across the world. Anne chose the motto “ The Most Happy”, in stark contrast to her predecessor. Catherine had been “ Humble and Loyal”; Henry’s mother, Elizabeth of York had chosen “ Humble and Reverent”. But humility was not a highlight on Anne’s characteristics. ————————————————- WIFE AND MOTHER After the grandeur celebration of her triumph, Anne went into a quiet routine for her childbirth. During those times, Henry developed an infatuation with a court lady, which caused the couple’s first serious fight. However Henry didn’t want to harm his wife nor their child so he cut off the affair immediately. On August 16 1533, Anne entered confinement. On the 7th day of September 1533 between three or four in the afternoon, the child was born, who was slightly premature. Physicians and astrologers predicted it to be a male. Yet it wasn’t. It was a healthy baby girl. It was quite a disappointment because a lot of preparations for an heir were already made just like the tournament for the birth of a prince, which was now cancelled. There were already pre-prepared letters announcing a prince’s birth. It was now hastily added with ‘ ss’ or rather with only one‘ s’, as how they spell it before, to make it princes(s). The King of France was even already notified to be the child’s godfather. But as I said, it was just a ‘ quite’ disappointment, unlike others thought it to be the immediate cause of Boleyn’s downfall. “ There was a good speed in deliverance and bringing forth”, Anne wrote to Lord Cobham that very day. She recovered quickly and Henry had a strong faith that his wife will soon give birth to strong princes. Like Anne’s coronation, the princess’ christening was grand, though the King wasn’t present. The infant was christened Elizabeth, either in the honor of the King’s mother or her own. Right after the christening, Henry wrote to 17-year-old Mary, daughter of him and Catherine; and demanded to give up her position as Princess of Wales. Such title always belongs to the heiress. He also commanded her of acknowledging his marriage and legitimacy of her half-sister. But like her mother, Mary was hardheaded and refused to all commands of her father. Henry enraged and Anne supported the estrangement. Without Mary, her daughter and she herself could maintain their statuses. The King had Mary transferred to Elizabeth’s household under the careof Anne Boleyn’s aunt, Anne Shelton. Her former home, the manor of Beaulieu was given to George Boleyn. Mary had a hard time, whenever asked to give respects to the infant Elizabeth. She would say that she knew no other Princess of England but herself and then she would burst in tears. For Elizabeth, her mother had been very affectionate and devoted to her. After birth, Elizabeth and Mary were moved from London to Hatfield for London was a nest of diseases – sweating sickness, small pox and plague. The King and Anne would occasionally visit Elizabeth while Mary was kept alone to her room. At a young age, Elizabeth was already fashionably dressed. There were accounts and letters that support this fact. There were bills for an orange satin gown and a russet velvet kirtle. After her second birthday a letter was sent by a wet nurse, asking to wean her. There was a plan of study in classical languages for Anne wanted an education like Mary’s. Mary and Anne’s relationship was not good, on the other hand. Mary strongly believes that it was her wicked stepmother who caused her father’s disgust on her but in reality; Henry had more to do with it than Anne. Still, they still tried to gain Mary’s trust and recognition of the new Queen and Princess. They wanted to show Mary that she brought her father’s displeasure on her own and they are also quite willing to receive her. Once in her visit to Hatfield, she invited Mary to come at court and see her as Queen. Mary responded with a cruel insult, “ I know no Queen in England but my mother. But if you, madam, as my father’s mistress will intercede for me with him, I should be grateful”. Anne get hold of her temper and asked her again. This time Mary made no answer and the queen left with anger. She never attempted to befriend Mary. Thomas Cromwell, Henry’s new chief minister also urged Mary to renounce her title and warned her that her behavior would led to her ruin. Mary opened up, saying she only wished for the blessing of her father and the honor of kissing his hand. However, Cromwell went on criticizing her then she left. Eustace Chapuys, an Imperial ambassador who had spiteful feelings for Anne kept on telling false statements to Mary, such that Anne would have her murdered. It was a lie she hysterically believed. Once a word came that she and her half-sister would be moving to The More, she refused to go. Guards had to actually seize her and throw her at her litter. Her distress naturally made her ill. There were also gossips from Mary’s Spanish friends about Anne and Elizabeth’s monstrous appearance. To prove them wrong, Henry showed his daughter to several diplomats from other continents naked. In the same month, April 1534, Anne announced her second pregnancy. Nothing could have pleased the king even more. The blissful king took her wife and daughter to Eltham. Henry often carries and plays with Elizabeth. Soon he and Anne went back to Greenwich and he left on a progress, leaving Anne at the palace. Henry gave much attention to his wife’s health. He even postponed

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