Tragedy of the commonThe world is limited and you can’t just keep increasing (carrying capacity)
Freedom in a commons brings ruin to allproblemsLand degradation
Extinction of speciesWhat should we do with common property? Make it private?
Public but with entry rights?
-wealth, auction, lottery, merit, first come first serve
If we don’t decide we will destroy national parksPollutionPutting something into the common
Sewage, chemicals, radioactive, and heat waste
Discharging wastes is less than the costs of cleaning them
address this by laws and taxes to make it cheaper to clean then the discharge
The pollution problem is a consequence of populationHow to legislate temperance? The morality of an act is a function of the state of the system at the time it is preformed
It is done best through mediation of administrative lawPathogenic effects of conscienceWill we stop behaving badly just because out conscience says too?
Caught in a double bind- condemn for not being a responsible citizen, and also condemn for being shamed into standing aside while the rest of us exploit the commonsMutual coercion mutually agreed uponResponsibility is created through coercion and creation of social arraignments
Agree on coercion to avoid chaos of the commons
The status quo is actionRecognition of necessity (is freedom)Commons is justifiable in low populations
With increased populations abandon the commons
Infringement on personal libertiesHuman natureWant to add to tragedy to get maximum benefit for yourself
externalization of social costs- pass on social costs to the commons where they are not clearly seen and can’t been accounted for
Environmental law wants to re internalize the costs (polluter pays)Pollution and overuse via harvesting… Private propertyInduces people to work by granting them ownership of all or some of the fruits of their labor
People act in their own self interest
Short term thinking is dysfunctional- Rachel Carson
Externalized costs don’t disappear even if they are ignoredThe Coase theoremLaws purpose is the create property rights that are capable of being traded via market exchange
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