The first 24 years of a child’s life is divided to four planes or stages of development each consist of a period of six years. Within these stages the development is intense at the beginning, consolidates and then tapers to the next. The 1st & 3rd planes are periods of intense creation, while 2nd & 4th planes are the calm periods of consolidation. * Birth to six (infancy) First Plane * Six to twelve (Childhood) Second Plane * Twelve to eighteen (Adolescence) Third Plane * Eighteen to twenty (Maturity) Forth Plane The first plane of development ( 0 – 6 years) This is a period of intense creation.
Therefore, this plane is indicated in red. This period is of fundamental importance for the formation of the individual or the foundation of the personality. This is the period of transformation. The first plane of development is further divided in to two sub phases. (0 – 3) and (3 – 6) years. The first sub plane is known as ‘ The unconscious absorbent mind’. The infant during this period is also identified as a ‘ spiritual embryo’ as the infant has within themselves the potentialities which determines his or her development. The second sub plane is a period of consolidation also known as the conscious ‘ Absorbent mind’.
Power – The characteristics of this period (0 – 6) is known as the absorbent mind which is like a sponge. The child can learn subconsciously, and effortlessly, through observations and exploration. The child is a sensorial explorer at this stage. During the absorbent mind the sensitive periods are at the strongest and facilitates the child’s learning process and the initial adaptation. Physical – During this first plane of development various physical abilities develop. Physically the body develop from head to toe. Between (0 – 3) years these abilities develop separately, and independently of each other.
Hands and leg movements not guided by the mind. However, between 3 – 6 period movement of hand and legs are guided by intelligent. The child turns from a chubby helpless one to a very active one who can walk, run, climb, dress and feed self. She is always busy doing something. The child has a fragile immune system and is susceptible to illness. Initially there will be random movements like shaking hand or a leg. But gradually these movements become coordinated and controlled, grasping, touching, turning, balancing, crawling and walking. Initially the child has a soft wrinkle skin and baby hair.
The head is very large, not adult proportion to the baby. The skeleton is very soft and there won’t be any teeth early years. The child will drink only breast milk in the first few months. Psychological – During the first plane the child is undergoing striking psychological developments. The child’s ability to absorb languages, knowledge, customs, habits, culture, moral values, attitudes is improving. The child will display the need for order to do an activity ‘ just right’ intense concentration on repetition, experience joy as he makes contact with his world. Striving for physical and psychological independence.
Environment – ‘ The child creates the person she will become once given an appropriate and specially provided environment to work. ’ During this period the child requires proper care and security. The environment around the child should be orderly and the daily activities should be to a proper routine. The parents and teachers should be involved in the child’s daily life without becoming a hindrance to them and without interfering to their work. They should be exposed to rich sensorial experience and rich language. It is very important to allow child the freedom to explore, to choose, to move, speak and interact.
The child should be given increased responsibilities for her to feel independent. The Second Plane of Development (6 – 12 years) This plane is indicated in blue because it is a calm period of consolidation. This is a period of uniform growth and intermediate period of the second stage of childhood. At this stage children are more stable, calm and of great energy. It is also a period of self discovery and a period for developing characters, moral and ethics. Power – As the child has mastered most of the basic human skills No longer process the absorbent mind but learn through imagination, reasoning and exploring further.
Physical – A this stage he will loose the baby teeth and the permanent teeth will grow. This is a period of uniform growth. The child will be thinner and stronger. The skeleton become hardened. Now the child is capable of challenging movements. The hair become coarser. Psychological – At this plane the child get attracted towards an abstract plane. This is mostly a moral and intellectual development period. The child starts to judge the actions of the other people and also to know whether his own actions are approved or not. He begins see the difference between right, wrongs and fair and unfair.
This is the most important period of moral education of a child. In this period the child must be helped for the development of moral in him. At this stage it will be very useful to get a child to join group activities like boy scout movement. The child get attached to a broader net work of social relationships and set out definite moral principles. He will share with the others these moral principles and get attracted to the movement. They pledge themselves not to do certain things and also to help poor, to preserve the environment they live etc.
The child will be happy to take part in a long march to collect funds for this organization because he is doing this on his own and not forced by any body. He knows that the funds go for a real cause. He enjoys it because at this age the child is striving for intellectual independence. Reference – From the lecture given by Dr Montisoor at the XXIV th International Course in London in 1939) Environment – The child is drawn to move social interactions and learning about social relationships within their environment. The child is interested in the thoughts, feelings and treatment of others.
At this stage they are begging to develop a sense of humor. The child will be happy to assume respect and build relationships with others. Third Plane of Development (12 – 18 years) This plane also indicated in red colour because it is also a period of intense creation. Physiological and physical transformation take place in the child. This plane is also divided in to two sub planes. The first sub plane (12 – 15) years and the second sub plane from (15 – 18) years. Physical – Tremendous physical changes occurs during this period at a dizzying speed.
The child has to adjust to a new body within a period of few years. A dependable child becomes an independent adult. Puberty – The childhood ends and starts to become a sexually mature person. Girls develop breast and menstruation while the change of voice occurs in boys. Also facial hair appears in them. Hormones are responsible for these developments. Also a noticeable increase in the height and weight can be seen. The growth in female can be seen from the ages of 10 – 14 and ends by age 16. The male growth begins between ages of 10 – 16 and end by 18.
Psychological – The child begins to leave the family little by little. Instantly, emotionally and then physically. The outsiders become more important to them. The parents can become very worried during these times. They have to understand that the child is becoming an adult The way they talk to the child will have to be different. What was appropriate earlier will not be appropriate now. Children are very insecure at these stages. They will be very interested in themselves. Most of the children have a inferiority complex at this age. They feel that others are interfering to their lives too much.
They think that everybody is watching as to what they are doing. They feel that the others are not making use of them, that they are wasting time. The I. Q levels decrease during this time. The interest they pay to studies will be lesser. They will be interested in cultural and social issues. This is the time to engage them in arts, music and drama. Like to get connected with lessons with practical and concrete experience. They need to engage with real life situations. All activities should be connected to real life skills, helping and satisfying their needs.
Environment – The child will be more aware of peers and their opinions. They will start to observe the other people more, will be keen to interact with opposite sex. They can live within a community with responsibility. Ideal time to engage them in community capacity building projects with groups of similar age. Also working on project of land, buildings natural environment, where they can utilize their five senses will be ideal. Projects like collecting and sorting of seeds. Inventorising fauna & flora, to looking at the relationship between plants to water and sunlight will allow them to achieve success.
The Fourth Plane of Development (18 – 24 years) This plane is indicated in blue because like the second plane, this is also a calm period of consideration. This is a period of transition to adulthood. From around 18 – 21 years the child will be beginning to question himself and start planning a career path for him. By now he has been exposed to many aspects of practical skills, research and learning. So he will be more confident in choosing a career which will suit his needs and ability. By the time they are 21 – 24 years they are very sure of what they want and will further develop it.
Physical – By now the process of attaining full physical maturity usually completed. The maximum height is normally reached at this stage. Also the secondary reproductive organs are properly developed at this point. Psychological – At this stage they learn important responsibilities such as getting a job or pursuing a degree in school. Decision making skills have grown. Has the ability to identify life goals and adult interests. At this stage they seek to form intimate relationships. The interest in peer groups will gradually decrease and closer friendships are found between few people.
Sexuality is usually more pronounced during this stage. More sexual activities is done during this stage. Also by now they are ready to accept responsibilities like having their own family, looking after others etc. They have by now establish independence. Environment – By this stage most of the children are either employed or pursuing higher studies. They have already decided the path they are taking in their careers or in higher studies. Most of them are at this stage are closer to their parents than when they were in the 3rd plane Parents should recognized their children’s powers by now.
Quality time must be spent with them but should recognize their right to freedom. They should be provided a good environment free of trouble and drugs and alcoholism, so they don’t get addicted to them. The parents should set an example to them in this stage. They should be allowed to get reality based experience in their careers and social lives. They can get frustrated when they fall in their missions during these periods. Loving, understanding and support of the parents is very important for them to overcome temporary set backs and gain confidence. Human Needs & Tendencies Human Needs are requirements or necessities for life.
If you do not get them you can’t survive. Needs can be divided to two categories physical and spiritual. Food, shelter, clothing, air and water are the primary needs. Without them the survival of human being is not possible. However, different cultures meet these needs in different ways. Food is a basic need for people all over the world. However, the varieties of food and the way people prepare them will vary as per their climatic conditions and cultures. People in warm countries will consume more vegetables and salads while people in colder climatic countries will consume more meat.
The similarity is they both have to get food some how. Shelter is another primary need. The styles of houses in different parts of the world will differ as per the cultures, climatic conditions, availability of resources etc. Everybody cannot afford to live in luxury but should have some kind of shelter to survive. Clothing is also a very essential need. Here again, the styles and material will largely vary depend on the cultures and the climates. The significant factor is the people all over the world have a need for clothing. Air and water are also very important for the survival of mankind.
You can’t think of survival without these two requirements. Spiritual Needs Love and security are two important needs of mankind. Although we may not die without them we can’t be what it is to be human. Love – The first need love is not only to receive it but also to give it. Love will change over time. Firstly, we will love our parents, teachers, family and latter our partners and spouses and children. Security, is also an essential need. The feelings of being secure is very important in our day to day life. In our childhood we will feel secure with our parents and later with our families.
Also a good education and a firm financial position will make you feel very secure. Survival – The survival of mankind will strongly depend on the environment they live. Unless they can find their essential needs in the environment they live, they can’t survive in that environment. All the needs described above must be available in our living environment for us to survive. Environment – As explained earlier, the environment in which the human being lives is very important for the survival. Unless the living environment can provide the basic needs for the human being its survival is not possible.
Tendencies – Tendencies directs individuals unconsciously to drift or to pull in a particular way and to act in a specific manner. Tendencies can be described as life forces or natural guides which drives people towards activities which fulfill their needs for survival. All people have certain tendencies or behaviour patterns regardless of culture, ethnic background race or country. Human beings follow specific pattern of exploration inventiveness and creativity. They all follow similar kind of natural laws that guide them to act in a specific way. Therefor, tendencies are universal and common to all humans.
Strength of different tendencies will differ at different ages. Some tendencies will be stronger than others during development periods but exist all through life. Although tendencies exist in all the people in some form strength of tendencies of people will differ. The tendencies direct us to take some action and not to act in some situations. Tendencies are mostly inter related and do not function in isolation. For example Curiosity and exploration are inter related. The human beings are very curious. This tendency has allowed them to explore their environment and learn.
Unless they were curious, there was no possibility of exploring. This has led them to develop themselves to what they are today, gregariousness and communications are also two inter related tendencies. Because of the tendency of gregariousness the people wanted to be in the company of other people in his surrounding. He wanted to exchange his views with them, ask for their help when need arises. This is how they develop the communication skills, developed languages. Orientation and order are also inter related tendencies. People always wanted to get familiar with their surrounding, to know about things around them.
Once they get familiar with the environment around them they want things to be in proper order. Order will make them comfortable, feel good and make them their life easy. Exactness and Perfection are also two inter related tendencies. The tendency of exactness drive people to do things neatly and properly. They want to do things exactly right which lead them to perfection. Perfection will give them satisfaction and joy. . Adaptation – The humans are gifted with the ability to be capable to adopt to the environment unlike the animals. Animals are adapted to the environment at the time of their birth itself.
The children have to acquire what they need from the environment from their living environment, so they can adopt to it. Tendencies manifested in humans from the earliest human to the present humans at every point in history, different times, places and cultures assisted in human adaptation with general and individual progress. Some Tendencies to Consider Orientation – Orientation is to get used to unfamiliar surrounding. Specially children are very keen to know about everything around them when in a new environment. They will touch everything around them and will ask various questions to get to know about the new things they see.
Exploration – The children are usually very curious. They want to know more about the environment around them, so they will explore. Even the toddlers can be seen crawling around to explore their surroundings. Freedom of movement for children is very important to explore their surroundings and to learn. Order – People prefer order to confusion. They prefer things to be kept in a orderly manner. When a classroom is kept in a orderly manner a child will observe this gradually and take it to his inner mind to act accordingly in a orderly way.
Perfection – The human tendency is to do things to perfection. They will repeat a task until done perfectly. Children will attempt to do a task repeatedly until they satisfy that they have done it to perfection and they will be very happy and satisfied. Exactness – People have a tendency to do things exactly right. Specially the children like to do things neatly. Even before they draw a picture they will keep their different coloured pencils in a proper order and start drawing. By completing a task exactly right will bring deep satisfaction and joy to them.
Communication – People used various ways to communicate with other people from the earliest days. They used pigeons to pass messages and used smoke to give signals, in the very old days and now the latest technology has allowed people from different countries to have teleconference facilities. People need to express their feelings and tell their needs to each other. Proper communication is very important to resolve conflicts and to convey proper instructions. Work – The children enjoy working when they are allowed to work voluntarily; specially when they see a purpose in it.
If we always feed a child, carries her and do everything for her, she will not learn to do anything on her own. We must always develop the child’s tendency to work. Movements – This is a tendency mankind had developed from the earliest days. To move from place to place they used different tactics. From horse backs to jets, the systems have developed rapidly. Even the toddlers move from place to place by crawling. Independence – The people like to be independent. To do things on their own, not to depend on anybody. Once you are independent you will have a sense of proudness.
Even the children like to do things on their own. To get up alone, to be able to work on their own, to draw a picture without being told how to do it. You must allow a child to do things on their own and only guide them when necessary. This will allow them to be independent. Imitation – Children will always gather things from their living environment. Firstly at home they will notice what the parents do and try to imitate them. At school they will try to imitate the teachers. So it is very important to be mindful of this tendency and be an example to children.
Behaviour in their presence should be exemplary. Curiosity – Curiosity is the tendency which has helped the human being to develop to what he is today. Curiosity drives you to exploration and perfection. Children are very curious. They will want explore every thing around them. From the very early days they will crawl to look around, to touch things, to get to know their environment. This is how they learn. Self Judgment – When children are allowd to do things on their own they will get to know about their capabilities, limitations by making mistakes and doing things repeatedly.
They will asses their capabilities and try to improve on them. Concentration – The child, when allow to do her activities without being interfered and interrupted will start concentrating on her work. She would do mistakes and would like to do things better to perfection. To do this she will have to concentrate at her work. The adults should help the child only when she requires your help and not always. The child will learn to do things on her own only by concentrating and improving herself. Calculation – Calculation is a tendency we must allow a child to develop. It is not only adding sums.
Before doing things the child learn to calculate the task at hand, her capabilities and the risk involved. The mental calculation process will be a continues learning experience. Gregariousness – A person cannot survive without the company of the others. You need to learn to associate with the people around you. Without other people you cannot live alone in the society. A child will learn to associate with others only when she comes out of the house. First to the Montessori. She will start communicating with other children, fight with them, laugh with them and be friends with them.
The duty of the adult is to allow her to mix with them and a child to get to know how to enjoy each others company. Conclusion Tendencies are an essential part of a young child. She must follow them because they are her nature. These tendencies lead her exactly where she should be. They guide her to learn to improve herself and to gain knowledge. When these basic tendencies of human behavours are understood and respected children become what Dr Montisoorib called ‘ normalized’. They have a sense of internal peace, joy, tranquility and happiness. They can select some thing to work on and complete the work they started.
They will learn to handle frustration and secure within themselves. As adults, we have to consider the tendencies of children and should not place any obstacles in their path. We must encourage them to develop their tendencies. When children’s tendencies are blocked or prevented from manifesting, they will exhibit abnormal behavour like temper, anger, inability to concentrate, violence or shyness. If we constantly interrupt or prevent a child from attending in his activities as long as he wishes he will be less able to concentrate because he is not allowed to develop in this way.