- Published: November 10, 2022
- Updated: November 10, 2022
- University / College: Cornell University
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Scientific research has for a long time depended on the inductive method for the purpose of forming of theories and hypotheses. This method is also referred to us inductive reasoning and is the direct opposite of the deductive method. In this method, there are experiments that are carried out then specific observations made. From the observations, there are generalizations drawn for the sake of having a conclusive agenda. The basis of this method is that it derives generalizations from the hypothesis. Even though the observations may have some level of accuracy, there is always a provision for a false derivation (Gauch, 20).
At all instances, the conclusion must always have some false. This does not imply that the findings are doubtful, but done for the purpose of ensuring that the theory has a window over which the hypothesis can be tested over what is known. This allows for an improvement in a theory or coming up with a new theory. Theories help in giving solutions to existing problems or otherwise help in informing decisions.
He has been said to be one of the father of modern physics. He was born in Germany and was a Jewish. He coined the famous theory on mass and energy, and this has formed the basis of analysis in the physics world. He at one point was offered the presidency in Israel, but declined the offer. He instead was a pioneer in establishing the Hebrew university in Jerusalem. Einstein always took note of the missing links in the scientific world especially in physics. His major concern was the disparities that existed in the Newtonian mechanics. He therefore worked towards reconciling the Newtonian mechanics and the electromagnetic (Einstein, 13).
The findings in this study led to the explanation of the Brownian molecular movements. He also came up with the thermal characteristics of light. His findings have provided a basis for scientific explanations in the scientific world, especially in physics. This has ensured major breakthroughs and has served as a basis for informing decisions.
He was a Jewish and has been touted as one of the father of psychology. His views have not only been used in the field of psychology, but as formed the basis of explanations in other fields too like sociology. Freud was a medical doctor, and one of the theories he came up with was the psychoanalysis theory. He changed people’s notion on mental disorders. He argued that mental health was not as a result of diseases or infections. His argument was that several behaviors were controlled as a result of unconscious motives and drives (Reef, 5).
Most of his derivations were as a result of his close associations with the patients. Another of his theory was the children’s sexuality. His argument on this put him on a collision course with many of his peers. He stated that young boys are attracted to their mothers sexually while young girls are attracted to their fathers in the same manner. These created conflicts within the family circles, as the young girls hated their mothers and the boys to their fathers. This argument brought about a lot of controversies. He also talked about the role of ego in shaping an individual’s way of life.
Lord of the Flies
William Golding documented Lord of the Flies and the single most prominent argument was about society. He stated that society was formed, but due to the cruelty and harshness, the very society collapsed. Therefore, there is a suggestion that for a society to be functional, they should be systems that guide whatever happens in the society. There should be a governance structure, leadership and there should be rules and norms for the sake of ensuring sanity in the society. While in the island, the boys were in a society that was civilized, but their own agendas made them develop some violent tendencies. Furthermore, they tried to have some jobs created for the people nevertheless they could not listen to the legitimate leader who was Ralph. The conflicts that arose were as a result of people having different thoughts and agendas that were by and large conflicting. In no time, the whole society was a mess and ran out of control (Golding, 15).
The leader could not make anything work, and this is a clear testimony that if a society has no leader to give directions, a society quickly turns chaotic. The people were free to do whatever they wanted. Evil triumphant over good and this made the society less functional. Some rules and laws are occasionally strict on individuals; nevertheless, the rules exist just to guide operations and relationships so that people have some level of soberness and tolerance. For the sake of order in the society, rules should be initiated for this purpose. In the absence of laws and leaders, individuals are left to give chat their own course which eventually leads to chaos.
Genetically Modified Crops
This basically is the introduction of a trait to a plant that is not original to that species. This is done through genetic engineering. This method has been introduced by scientists enhance better crop variety and to make crops be resistant to crop diseases. The crops that are genetically modified come from the laboratories from where they are modified. A trait that is viable in one crop is introduced to the other which has got less viable characteristics (Liang and Daniel, 25). This has tended to enhance the productivity and viability of such crops. Many have questioned the morality behind the genetically modified foods. Scientists have however argued that genetically modified foods have an enhanced value better than the normal crop variety. This method has been fronted, and is a better way of dealing with food shortage globally. Though this technological advancement is still debatable, several people have welcomed it.
Importance of Science and Technology to the Modern World
The modern world would be unimaginable without science and technology. The duo has become a source of great resource in having a better world today. To start with, science has become an important tool in informing decisions that we take today. Scientific knowledge has been used to model systems that have changed our way of life immensely. For instance, hospitals depend on the scientific knowledge in understanding how the body works. From this knowledge, it is then possible to diagnose correctly what one is suffering from and give the right prescription.
Science is important to the modern world because it helps in drawing out patterns. The patterns thus, help in coming up with working plans for the sake of solutions (Bridgstock, 3). For example, scientists can predict a drought situation thus will help in making plans to deal with situations. Also important is that they can give patterns on the raging storms and mild winds which then help in coming up with solutions.
Science is one of the disciplines of study and as such, it helps in producing a generation of students. The students thus, become the agents of change in the scientific world. They come up with theories and discoveries that to a large extent help in solving problems that exist in the society today. Science thus covers all aspects of human life and is an important tool in driving the world’s agenda in the modern times.
Technology on the other hand has become a strong pillar of development. The world today is a global village because of technology. Communication has been made easy and faster. Many things that could not take place because of communication breakdowns have been enhanced magnificently. Further, communication has become very essential in business and the cost of doing business has been reduced as a result. Food technology has also been enhanced through genetically modified foods. This has helped in improving crop variety. Food shortages have also been solved through this method of production. This is where technology and science has played a significant role.
Transportation systems have been enhanced has faster modes of transportations have been enhanced. Case in point is the development of the electric trains that have made transportation faster in some parts of the world. Some airplanes have been built in such a way that they can overcome some adverse weather effects thus ensuring the safety of the passengers. Technology has also enhanced the treatment of some disease like cancer. The machines used for chemotherapies are high tech and help in doing away with the cancerous cells that bring critical health effects (McClellan, James and Harold, 416).
Even though science and technology have played an important role in the world today, it is important to note that there are some adverse effects of the two aspects. Technology has been used for the purpose of producing weapons that have been used for mass destruction. Science on the other side has been used to develop bombs used for war.
Bridgstock, Martin. Science, Technology and Society: An Introduction. Cambridge, En:
Cambridge University Press, 1998. Print.
McClellan, James E, and Harold Dorn. Science and Technology in World History: An
Introduction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. Internet resource.
Gauch, Hugh G. Scientific Method in Practice. Cambridge [u. a.: Cambridge University Press,
Liang, George H, and Daniel Z. Skinner. Genetically Modified Crops: Their Development, Uses,
and Risks. New York: Food Products Press, 2004. Print.
Golding, William. Lord of the Flies. New York: Listening Library, 2002. Sound recording.
Reef, Catherine. Sigmund Freud: Pioneer of the Mind. New York: Clarion Books, 2001. Print.
Albert Einstein: The Man Behind the Theories. S. l.: Filiquarian, 2008. Print.
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