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Ketamine pain mechanism

This channel complex contributes to excitatory synaptic transmission at sites throughout the brain and the spinal cord, and is modulated by a number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. The pharmacology of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid-mediated events in the transmission and modulation of pain in the spinal cord.

2 d-electrophoresis separation of the wheat leaf proteome – lab report example

There are two gels produced in the experiment, in figure 1 the gel was ideal as it is evident by the spots that represent the proteins. In this case, the protein of interest could be identified, and then cut out from the strip so that it could be measured by spectrophotometer.

Benefits of integrating fossil and molecular data

Benefits of Integrating Fossil and Molecular Data Introduction Over the years, the question of the origin of life forms has baffled humanity. Existence of God Using the integration of fossil and molecular data, Shubin has been able to criticize the religious beliefs of the existence of a supreme being.

Free essay on critique: experiences of preconception, pregnancy, and new motherhood for lesbian

The key concept of the article was to explore the preconception, pregnancy and new motherhood experiences of the non-biological mothers in the lesbian couple. In the current, it was not possible to anticipate the content of the experience gained during the preconception, pregnancy and the new motherhood by the lesbian non-biological mother.

Medical terminology essay sample

This is one reason why it is so important for specialists to know terms that are associated with all of the different body systems. The Incredible Human Body Systems.

Catalysis in enzymes and biochemical reactions biology essay

The activity of an enzyme can be changed in many ways: Enzyme concentration: As the sum of an enzyme additions, the sum of the substrate that is broken down besides increases. Record the sum of KMnOa'" remnant in the pipette in the pipette.

Staphylococcus aureus newman requires eap and emp biology essay

In present study, the interaction of Eap and Emp is determined with human skin and cartilage suprastructures using S.aureus Newman, isogenic single mutants and a double mutant. The DM mutant was complemented with emp and eap and investigated for expression of functional Emp and Eap.

Microbiology laboratory questions

The burning candle utilizes the oxygen in the jar and creates an anaerobic environment suitable for the cultivation of microaerophiles and obligate anaerobes 9. What is the significance of VRE?

Resolution and magnification essay sample

The electron passes through the thinner part of the sample easily and the denser part of the sample less easily. The electron passes through the thinner part of the sample easily and the denser part of the sample less easily.

Sci p2 phyletic gradualism and punctuated equilibrium

Phyletic Gradualism believes in the constant rate of evolution and the gradual transformation of ancestral species to produce new ones. The fossil record shows that the existence of one species 140 million years ago and no changes in the said species were found in the first 40 years.

Selectivity filter and conduction pathway biology essay

Different conditions and signals such as Ca2+ and G-proteins are responsible for the activation of the different types of K+ channels and these conditions also correspond to the various molecular subfamilies of the many K+ families that have been found. Much like the majority of the Kv1 subfamily genes, with the exception of KCNA7, the →

Charles darwin and the theory of evolution

Charles Darwin and the Theory of Evolution Charles Darwin is widely known as the father of evolutionary biology. Whether Dawin's Theory of Evolution is true or not, Charles Darwin vastly expanded our knowledge on the world we live in.

Urinary disorders i

Smith has developed arteriolar nephrosclerosis which is associated with people of his age with hypertension, this condition is associated with hardening of walls of the arteries and arterioles in the kidney and failure in kidney functions, this is evident by the frequent headaches, swelling of the legs and feet, increase in weight due to edema, →

The evolution of the internet: routers

99 Aus Home Office " TPLink Archer AC3200"" A tech reviewer carried out a test of the Archer C3200 in his home with five different remote switch gadgets, comprehensive of the NETGEAR Nighthawk X6 and the Linksys EA9200. We can say that Archer AC 3200 is good to use in a small businessenvironmentbecause it has →

Mathematical modelling of random clustering particles biology essay

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the regulations for the Award of the Degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours in Biomedical Science DPPProject supervisor: Dr.W. In order to test Roachs theoretical model it will be necessary to generate a statistically significant number of randomly distributed laminae within this frame.[6] The number, N, of laminae randomly →

Ethical conduct in scientific

Ethical Conducts in Scientific Research Ethical Conducts in Scientific Research Tuskegee Study The main purpose of this paper is to examine the unethical consideration in Tuskegee case study and include some of my personal response of the study and, ethical considerations that I consider to be most important. The aim of the study was to →

Inheritance lab

Using your possible genotypes, identify and record all of the possible pairings of parental genotypes that could have led to your possible genotypes. Results Use the chart below to record the observations of your phenotypes and to record your inferences regarding your genotype and all of the possible crossings of parental genotypes that can account →

The magnetic resonance imaging biology essay

The source of the signals is a condition of magnetization that is produced in the tissue when the patient is placed in the strong magnetic field as shown in Figure 4.2. The RF signal intensity and the brightness of the tissue depends on the level of magnetization during the " picture snapping time".


Transportation of the CO2 in the blood is through three mechanisms: Dissolved CO2, Bound to hemoglobin and Bicarbonate ions. The hydrogen ions dissociate from the hemoglobin and binds to the bicarbonate ion, producing carbonic acid, that through the enzymatic action of CA is converted back into CO2.

Acid activated vermiculites as catalysts biology essay

The effect of Cs and Cu contents in Cs Cu/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied in the simultaneous abatement of NOx and carbon black, used as a model of soot. Cesium in Cs Cu/ZrO2 also acts as a promoter favouring the contact between reactants: on the first hand it increases the exchange surface between CB and →

The status of renuka lake and parshuram tal

The average transparency of Renuka Lake and Parshuram Tal fluctuated in between 37.00 6. The index applied to the present study indicated that individuals of the phytoplankton community in Renuka Lake and Parshuram Tal are not evenly distributed as the values ranged from 0.

Should animal experimentation be permitted?

It's not right that we are aware of this issue and continue to let it happen and not enough people care enough to stop it. If we are not allowed to torture and harm humans for scientific research then we cannot go and do it to animals that cannot even stand up for themselves and →

Human and evolution according to archaeologist

Many archaeologists and other types of professionals learn about human evolution by digging up and examining fossils and tools of these four stages of million years ago. In other words, this means that they had a diet of fruits, plants, and meats.

Causes of abnormality essay

This paper explores abnormality as a disorder and highlights the medical and psychological explanations for the causes of abnormality. In understanding the causes of abnormality in the behavior, an evaluation of the individual's body is carried out.

The amperometric cholesterol sensors biology essay

The reductionreaction is part of the redox reactionwhich occurs in the solution. An enzymatic sensor has a few disadvantageslike that the activity of an enzyme decreasesbecause of the use and the sensor response isdependent of the temperature and pH.

Identifying macromolecules using iodine’s test, benedict’s test, & biuret test

For the Benedict's testing, the glucose was mixed with the benedict solution and heated, and the resultant solution turned to orange. For the Benedict's testing, the glucose1phosphate was mixed with the benedict solution and heated, and the resultant solution remained blue.

Environmental science article review sample

In the article, legumes are the plants being referred to while non living things being addressed in the article is nitrogen. It is through the prokaryotes that the plants are able to convert nitrogen into the usable form.

Synthesis of pullulan graft polyacrylamide porous semi ipn hydrogel biology essay

The three main functional properties of porous hydrogel: absorption capacity, absorption rate and the swollen gel strength are related to the degree of porosity and the pore size which play the multiple role of enhancing the total water sorption capability and the rate of response by reducing the transport resistance [4, 5]. Therefore the volume →

History of central electricity board biology essay

The production of electricity by the CEB is around 40% of the total requirement from the four thermal power stations and eight hydroelectric plants; and the remaining 60% is purchased from the Independent Power Producer. Of which they comprise of 45% of the country's requirements and the remaining 55% of energy from the Independent Power →

Expounding upon risk factors

Given the repercussions of developing osteoarthritis and taking into consideration the considerable number of individuals with such a condition, it is without doubt essential to gain further insights regarding the risk factors for such a manifestation of arthritis; currently, a number of risk factors have been identified, with the following being among the most commonly →

Climate change- reality or myth

On the Nissan Leaf Commercial, this car company is trying to tell people that the purchase of the car would help the environment, particularly polar bears and natural sustainability. The commercial makes me feel that the help that the electric car can do to nature extends a long way, which is actually symbolized by the →

Sample research paper on boys behavior change in school

Thus, the behavior of boys in school is of growing concern and their behavior needs to be examined and analyzed in order to determine the driving factors and come up with the possible solutions. In order to determine the reasons for boys' behavior changes while in school, we first have to determine the triggering factors →

Creative writing on acronyms

This is an international organization which was formed to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and restrict the use of nuclear weapons for military purpose. This is an agreement entered by countries to prevent the development of nuclear weapons and to encourage the use of nuclear knowledge to produce energy.

Why fishes are important to humans

Catching fish for the aim of food or sport is thought as fishing, whereas the organized effort by humans to catch fish is termed a workplace. Sportfishing may be a methodology of fishing, specifically the follow of catching fish by means that of Associate in Nursing " angle".

Legalize anabolic steroids

Dates The Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 1990 was established to regulate the distribution of anabolic steroids in the United States. Scientifically, the adverse effects from the prolonged use of anabolic steroids remain inconclusive to date, and in actuality, anabolic steroid use has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of medical disorders.

Protein folding problem and the levinthal paradox biology essay

Despite of huge efforts, investments and claims made in the field of protein folding, the queries related to the general principles governing the folding, speed of folding and structure prediction based on primary sequence information still remains to be answered and hence the protein folding problem continues to prevail in the field. The entire problem →

Exposing several isolated body normal flora biology essay

The density and composition of the normal flora of the skin varies with anatomical locale. Therefore, the objectives of this experiment are to: To isolate and identify the normal body flora of human that tolerable to hairspray's chemicals content.

Stages in the life cycle of the plant

Several authors had reported the importance of germination in the life cycle of plant. According to Hubbard et, al this stage in the life cycle of the plant is considered as a critical event as germination is the first step in determining the survival rate of the crop thereby affecting its productivity.

Cfd modelling of heat exchanger equipment biology essay

The next step starts with modeling of fouling in the inside and outside of a single tube, and then we refine and extend the model to more real cases by relaxing the limiting hypotheses. DescriptionScaling is a kind of fouling that appears in the presence of calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions in water.

Utilization of miswak silver nanoparticles biology essay

Here in the current study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the extracts of miswak that can be used to treat peridontitis has been developed. The characterisation of the silver nanoparticles is performed.

Characterization of bioassay principle biology essay

The step was repeated again and the final pellet thus obtained was dissolved in 20 ml of 0. 5 ml of the supernatant was added 2.

Chemistry of falling in love

Oxytocin is the most present and at the highest level and that is the reason why today we call it the Love Hormone or the Love drug. It is proven by a research that feeling love, or in this case, being in love can actually have the same numbing effect of a painkiller.

The uniqueness of a human

To be human is to be autonomous, be your authentic self, and live in the moment, to dream and create, to seize every opportunity and to have human dignity. To be human is to know that you were made in the image and likeness of God and to be certain that you are special and →

Complete a using the scientific method – lab report example

Variability in Maize Yields and Properties of soil in Arable and non arable soils. The null hypothesis of the study will be that there would be a higher maize yield in arable land than in non arable land.

Scientists say they can recreate living dinosaurs within the next 5 years

If that was not enough genetic splicing and dicing, Harvard scientists by inserting the genes of a woolly mammoth into elephants in order to recreate the extinct beasts. If the four major differences between dinosaurs and birds are their tails, arms, hands and mouths, Horner and team have already flipped certain genetic switches in chicken →

Implementation of tree inventories as a part of floristic studies

A state-wide evaluation was conducted by Cowett and Bassuk in New York on street trees and in their study; they tried to evaluate the tree inventory being conducted in the different states in the U.S.using different methods. According to Cabansag, ecological studies of the inventory of tree species engaged through the transect process in determining →

A chronic and incurable disorder biology essay

Metformin is also prescribed for the treatment of obesity and polycystic ovarian syndrome in unlicensed manner. These studies confirm that the development of a transdermal drug delivery for metformin is possible and can successfully increase adherence in patients who are sensitive to gastric side effects of oral metformin.

Intrinsic or integral membrane proteins biology essay

Membrane proteins that extend through the lipid bilayer are called transmembrane proteins and have hydrophobic regions that are exposed to the interior of the bilayer. Peripheral membrane proteins are linked to the membrane through noncovalent interactions with other membrane-bound proteins.amphipathichydrophilicnoncovalentlycorticalhydrophobicperipheralcovalentlyintegraltransmembranedetergentmicelleunfolded What is the difference between an intrinsic membrane protein and a peripheral membrane protein?

Human cloning is immoral

One could wonder how the coming of Dolly is a threat to the human society. Despite the existence of natural clones even among the human race, artificial production of such persons is immoral and a threat to the human society.

Cell division

In human cells, the plasma membrane invaginates along the equator of the cell, creating a cleavage furrow that will separate the cytoplasm in two daughter cells. Then the cell wall will separate the two daughter cells, and the cell wall starts growing in the middle of the cell between the two nuclei.

Correcting sickle cell disease using stem cells

Sickle cell anemia is a hereditary disease caused by the expression of hemoglobin S gene rather than that of hemoglobin A, producing crescent red blood cells instead of the normal concave RBCs. The abnormal shape prevents the proper transport of oxygen from the lungs to the other tissues of the body, and causes the RBCs →

An estimation of pectinase enzyme

The capacity of pectinase in blending is twofold, first it helps separate the plant material thus helps the extraction of flavors from the pound. SDS-PAGE is ordinarily used as a piece of the lab for the segment of proteins in perspective of their nuclear weight.

Theory study on electromagnets and electromagnetic therapy biology essay

The introduction to the special relativity by Albert Einstein in the early 1900's was due to the theoretical suggestions of electromagnetism where the formation of the speed of light based upon properties of the ' medium' of propagation took place. In the latter case, the secret code is stored in the magnetic tape at the →

The history of blood brain barrier biology essay

In inflammatory conditions, pro-inflammatory cytokines may be present in both the peripheral circulation and the brain tissue, in the brain tissue they can modulate the expression and functionality of ATP-binding cassette transporters located at the BBB, for example permeability glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein. Pro-inflammatory cytokines act on their receptors, which are present in →


This course has been instrumental in understanding the dynamics of growth and development particularly the topic of ' Biochemistry and Cell Biology.' I have learned that the overall growth is a result of the cellular process of mitosis, which leads to the division and proliferation of living cells. This course has broadened my understanding of →

Loratadine is an anti allergy medication biology essay

Marketed under brand names such as Claritin and Alavert, Loratadine is prescribed for the relief of symptoms related to allergic reactions like that of allergic rhinitis and hives. The tablet is of the rapidly dissolving kind so that it is easily absorbed by the body.

The development of cancer biology essay

In general, the more base pairs that are affected by a mutation, the larger the effect of the mutation, and the larger the mutation's probability of being deleterious. Chemotherapy is used as the first line of treatment to check the growth and the spread of cancer.

Detection of clostridium difficile toxin in the stool biology essay

UK " I confirm that the material presented in this project work is the result of my own efforts and that where material is derived from other authors / investigators has been used, it has been acknowledged in the text of the document and listed in the reference section" This project is about the testing →

Early detection of basal stem rot biology essay

A disruption to the photosynthesis of the palm oil plant has been investigated [4] due to the severity of BSR infections which among those symptoms of BSR are wilting of the leaves and plant malnutrition. However, the objective is to detect the presence of such BRS in Palm Oil Stem.

Bio 345 – topic paper

To understand the role of this gene and the association of the gen with breast cancer, Yongguo et al conducted a clinical study. Pathologically, it was seen that the gene was also expressed in advance cases of breast cancer.

Understanding chronic granulomatous disease biology essay

The failure in lysis of phagocytosed particle occurs due to synthesis of a faulty copy of NADPH oxidase in host. Gene therapy, Haematopoietic stem cell transplants are novel therapies that are being developed to reduce the occurrence and adverse conditions commonly observed in CGD.[1][2][3][4] The inability of phagocytes to produce oxygen metabolites in CGD lies →

Article analysis

A Statement of Skepticism: The writer has neglected, misunderstood, and ignored the environmental effects of this futuristic truck. A Statement of Enthusiasm: The article is very informative and catches the attention of fleet operators towards the advantages of using this futuristic truck as a latest transportation technology.

Changes and advances brought by the first world war

One of the most deadly conflicts in the history of the human race and killing over an estimated sixteen million people brought a tornado of change that swept over the entire world. Since the first Africans were brought as slaves to the British colony of Jamestown in 1619, black people had suffered much oppression in →

Exocytosis in paramecium

We first observed how the presence of Alicia blue dye triggers normal secretion of trichinosis, and we then tested four different hypotheses in order to determine how the presence of Ca++ ions in the extracurricular and intracellularenvironmentaffects the secretion of trichinosis. The secretion of trichinosis is controlled by the presence of Ca*+ ions within the →

The nonstructural protein 2c biology essay

The effects of the 3A, 2B, 2C, and 2BC proteins of FMDV on the function of the secretory pathway were analyzed by following the movement of the TsO45 mutant of the VSV G protein from the ER to the cell surface. It is not possible from our assay to show that 3A, 2B, and 2C →

Double side band suppressed carrier biology essay

Demodulation in this case simply reduces to the detection of the envelope of a modulated carrier with no dependence of the exact phase or frequency of the carrier. As shown in Figure 19, the product of the modulating signal and the carrier signal is added to the product of another pair of modulating signal and →

Noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus biology essay

In Type 3 diabetes Brains cease to produce enough insulin for brain. Type 3 diabetes is resposible for Alzheimer's disease which results from resistance to insulin in the brain various genetic defects in insulin action, and diseases of the exocrine pancreas.

The cell cycle and cancer

The cell cycle and cancer Cell cycle is the process by which cells divide or replicate leading to maturity of cells and organs and renewal of worn out cells. A change in regulation in the cell cycle, leading to cancer, is therefore most likely to occur at the M phase of the cell cycle.

Overview of immature microorganism innovations (sci) system

SCI's exercises in the field of foundational microorganism science have contributed specifically to progresses in the field, and additionally new immature microorganism disclosures around the world. It is an undifferentiated gathering of cells that can give endless applications in the improvement of new cells to be utilized in the treatment of infections and conditions, recuperation →

Five theories of group formation

The disadvantage of this theory is that it is not systematic and does not explain the problems group formation. In performing group members performing tasks to fullfill the goals.

Special tools of life

The specificity and the actions of the repressor gene ensure important parts of the cell are not destroyed in the process of mutation, molecule breakdown and other activities in the cell that involve a combination of enzymes. The ability of the living things to make their own tools that enable in the daily activities by →

Natural selection

Biology Topic: Natural Selection - describe how and why natural selection is an important concept in Evolutionary Biology The effect of natural selection is at the level of the individual. Interaction between adaptation and chance are the conflicting agents in the process of natural selection.

Dhow can we select immunogenic peptides able to trigger a selective b or t cell response in the development of a new subunit vaccine

The first step involves effective identification of infectious agent proteins, which have the ability and capacity to trigger a response of immunity that has a similarity to the whole agents' immune response. This system may have a variation in case chemical production is adopted in the selection process of the proteins after the identification of →

A brief study of this inner ear idiopathic disease biology essay

Throughout his career as a physician, he worked with patients who had similar symptoms of vertigo and hearing loss, which led him to postulate that the symptoms, later coined as Meniere's disease, might be the result of damage to the inner ear and not from cerebral dysfunction which was the popular belief before his research. →

Working and best practices in a cell culture lab

For instance, setting the pipette down, touching the pipette tips to the rim of the microfuge tubes, or allowing air bubbles to enter the tip by not pressing down to the first stop of the micropipette before entering the liquid. A new 15 mL pipette and the pipette aide was then used to transfer 5 →

Needle free injection technology biology essay

This is due to the fact that the vaccine gets into the bloodstream and provokes the body to generate antibodies that are carried throughout the entire body. Dermis: The dermis is the layer of skin below the epidermis and it consists of connective tissue and protects the body from stress and strain.

Natural products as drug source biology essay

The reasons for this are complex, but can be summarized as being due to a combination of factors, including the incompatibility of crude extracts with the high throughput assays used in the pharmaceutical industry, the cost of sample collection, problems with the lack of reproducibility and the presence of artifacts in some extracts, the difficulty →

Clinical features associated with familial hypercholesterolemia biology essay

The high levels of cholesterol within the blood is caused by a lack of an Low density Lipoprotein receptor which ultimately remove lipoproteins from the blood and the lack of the Low density Lipoprotein receptor means cholesterol is not sufficiently removed from the blood. LDL receptors are mainly found in the liver on the outer →

Creatine a common nutritional ergogenic aid biology essay

Creatine is a mixture of three amino acids and is located in the skeletal muscle, liver, pancreas and kidneys. Once the Loading Phase has ended, 2-5 grams of creatine are consumed per day in order to maintain a high creatine concentration within the muscles.

Determine disinfectant and antiseptic effectiveness using zone inhibition method

These include exposure time, concentration of the antimicrobial agent, temperature, optimal pH activity of the antimicrobial agents, the concentration of the microorganisms present, and the toxicity of the agent for skin or its effect on materials to be disinfected. Bleach is effective as a disinfectant and kills many micro-organisms, but is not a viable solution →

Anatomy, physiology & disease

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease Anatomy, physiology, and disease One of the es of disease that causes the largest threat to public health today is communicable disease. Prevention of the disease in relation to sexual transmission is achieved through the use of condoms and sex education.

Hypothesis analysis essay

{text: bookmark-start} Hypothesis Analysis {text: bookmark-end} Scientific Method is a process that is the basis for scientific inquiry. In inductive reasoning the premise may be true while the conclusion is false since there is not necessarily a logical relationship between the premises and conclusion {text: bookmark-start} {text: bookmark-end}.

Dead end and cross flow operation biology essay

Thus, an increase in the composition of carboxylatedpolysulfone in the blend increase the hydrophilicity of the membrane and hence a higher flux has been seen for membranes with higher composition of carboxylatedpolysulfone. The pure water permeability of membranes is a water content function and is relevant to the void the membrane volume.

How to maintain biodiversity

Protecting Areas Creating protected areas where human activity is limited is the best way to preventdeforestationand exploitation of organisms and the resources they need to survive. It needs to consider all elements of the ecosystem it is trying to protect, so that it is not too small.

The nature of world history

The life history of the world and the break-up of the history and are put together orderly and make meaning out of it. It is all about the changes that happens in the environment and how do they effect the people living in the environment.

Prep 19

Speciation Speciation is the splitting of a lineage to produce two or more separate species. This is believed to happen when a group of organisms from the species begins to occupy a distinct niche in the environment and eventually become adapted to the conditions while still breeding within themselves to produce a new species.


Raising the temperature and pressure and the number of reacting molecules can increase the frequency of collisions and the rate of chemical reactions. The energy of catabolic reaction is used to drive anabolic reactions.

Mitochondria and its functions

If muscle biopsies were taken from the legs of a world marathon runner and a typical couch potato which would you expect to have a higher density of mitochondria Why The mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell. How would the density of mitochondria in a muscle biopsy from the biceps of a →

Caveolin protein

Since the caveolin serve as the caveolae coat protein, the caveolin is considered as a major element of the caveolae which represents as the foundation of the lipid rafts. Caveolin has a total of three variants known as the caveloin-1, caveolin-2, and caveolin-3.

Genetics assignment two

What are the colors of the seeds of each of the parents? What are the genotypes of the Po, F1 and the F2 generations?

Anthropology essays – australopithecines and homos

The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Human Evolution.

Enac and hypertension

3 Role of the Kidney in the Control of Hypertension The kidneys play a key role in the long term control of blood pressure by regulating the reabsorption of electrolytes which create an osmotic gradient for the reabsorption of water leading to the maintenance of fluid balance. The moving of sodium across the epithelia of →

Probability – lab report example

The paper will explore and compare the experimental and theoretical probabilities from tossing the coins for conclusions over inheritance of genes. Conclusion The results of the experiment indicate that probability distributions can be used to predict and explain inheritance of genes.

The danger of the encephalitis

The Danger Of The Encephalitis Based on the available data, encephalitis and anaphylactic shock from the tetanus toxoid was the most likely cause of the man's death. 11, 2011 from the MayoClinic: http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/content/85/9/838.full Possible Treatment for the Man and Treatment for the Platelet Recipient First of all, the man in the case study should →

The molecular biology in infectious diseases biology essay

The sensitivity and specificity of CSF PCR for the diagnosis of HSV are 96% and 99% respectively. However, in cases with concomitant HIV infection, after the introduction of HAART therapy, the PCR technique showed a strong decrease in the sensitivity, because of the lower amount of the virus in the CSF, due to the restoration →