Essay, 3 pages (650 words)

Criminal investigation wk 3

Criminal Investigation Wk 3 Criminal Investigation Wk 3 The use of biological evidence has become the most extensively used form of evidence in the criminal court proceedings all over the world. The DNA evidence in the courts has assumed the outstanding proficiency in the recent years among the law enforcement agencies. Moreover, the advancement in technology has increased the efficiency, reliability, and acceptance of the uses of the DNA (Ashcroft, Daniels, and Hart, 2002). Notably, the use of DNA evidences has proven as an essential tool that is adequate to reveal the guilt, acquit innocence, or exonerate the convicts. The application of the forensic DNA Technology has revolutionized investigation of all violent crimes due to its ability to exonerate the convicted offender or convict perpetrator (Abichandani, 2004). The homicidal and sexual assault cases, the use of DNA evidences have formed a powerful tool towards fighting these criminal activities. However, for these criminal cases there is a need to reevaluate both the biological and physical evidences for proper identification of the criminal particularly using the newly identified criminal investigation mechanisms.
The most common DNA samples are often analyzed from the saliva, hair, skin tissues, blood, and semen that are often recovered from the crime scenes (Abichandani, 2004). They elements often help in investigating violent crimes including sexual assault and cold murders. The analysis of these element or samples is quite reliable to use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that has the capacity to magnify exceedingly small quantities of the DNA samples (Ashcroft, Daniels, and Hart, 2002). The significance of DNA results is that they can lead the investigation to the profile of a known suspect or victim that often matches the profile of DNA that were collected from the crime scene. Notably, if the DNA analysis report does not much the profile of the suspect, then the suspect or victim is excluded or exonerated from the case (Hess and Orthmann, 2010). In such cases, both the physical and biological evidences need reevaluation so that the precise information about the victim or the suspect is extracted from the scene of the crime.
The physical evidences often require deep criminalistics that require professional and scientific recognition, identification, collection, individualization, and interpretation of physical, criminal evidences. Application of physical evidences in crime investigation often needs the application of the natural science (Abichandani, 2004). The underlying concept in the evaluation of physical evidence is the matter divisibility concepts as well as the material transfer. This is a fundamental concept in gathering physical evidences since it assumes division and transfer of materials in relations to a criminal event. Form the concept; it is believed that two objects that come in contact can be traced from one another from either direction (Hess and Orthmann, 2010). This constitutes the transfer theory that has the concepts of association, individualization through individualizing, class characteristics, and re-constructions that form vital basis of investigative questions.
Therefore, it is essential to reevaluate all physical and biological evidence in both cold case murder investigations and sex-related crimes since both physical and biological evidence can easily be collected from the crime scene (Ashcroft, Daniels, and Hart, 2002). Moreover, the use of either physical or biological evidence may not lead to strong identification particularly of the suspect. The cold case will require sex kit evaluation as part of the physical evidences that will form material dispersion (Abichandani, 2004). Reevaluation also allows the use of new, effective methods that in turn allows refined testing and accurate results that can precisely locate both the suspect and victim of either crime (Hess and Orthmann, 2010). It should be noted that, physical evidence can never be relied on independently, but it is an essential step in forensic investigation.
Abichandani, R., K. (2004). New Biology & Criminal Investigation (With a Schedule of Model DNA Legislation proposed). Retrieved November 26, 2012, form http://gujarathighcourt. nic. in/Articles/NBCI. pdf
Ashcroft J., Daniels, D., J., & Hart, S., V. (2002). Using DNA to Solve Cold Cases. Retrieved November 26, 2012, from https://www. ncjrs. gov/pdffiles1/nij/194197. pdf
Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. M. H. (2010). Criminal investigation: Karen M. Hess ; Christine Hess Orthmann. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.

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