Social learningThe acquisition of patterns of behavior that conform to social expectations; learning what is acceptable and what is not acceptable in a given culture. Also, learning that involves interaction among individuals. SocializationThe complex process of learning both those behaviors that are appropriate within a given culture and those that are less appropriate. The primary agents of socialization are home, school, and peer groups. ONCH. 11: SOCIAL LEARNING: BANDURA’ S SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY SPECIFICALLY FOR YOUFOR ONLY$13. 90/PAGEOrder NowMoresThe established social conventions and customs of a group often considered essential to its identification and preservation as a distinct cultural group. CulturesThe sum total of the attainments and accumulated customs, beliefs, and mores of a group. Human cultures are typically marked by shared languages, spiritual beliefs, habits, and so forth. ImitationCopying behavior. To imitate a person’s behavior is simply to use that person’s behavior as a pattern. Bandura and Walters describe three different effects of imitation. Observational learningA term used synonymously with the expression ” learning through imitation”. ModelsA representation, usually abstract, of some phenomenon or system. Alternatively, a pattern for behavior that can be copied by someone. Symbolic modelsA model other than a real-life person. For example, books, television, and written instructions are important symbolic models. Direct reinforcementReinforcement that occurs as a direct consequence of a behavior–such as getting paid to work. Vicarious reinforcementReinforcement that results from observing someone else being reinforced. In imitative behavior, observers often act as though they are being reinforced when in fact they aren’t, but they think that the model is. Conditioned emotional reactionsA largely unavoidable emotional reaction associated with a conditioned stimulus, acquired through repeated exposure to specific emotion-related situations. Modeling effectThe type of imitative behavior that involves learning a novel response. Inhibitory effectThe effect of imitative behavior that results either in the suppression (inhibition) or appearance (disinhibition) of previously acquired deviant behavior. Disinhibitory effectInvolves engaging in a previously inhibited, deviant behavior as a result of observing a model. The inhibitory effect involves refraining from a deviant behavior. Eliciting effectImitative behavior in which the observer does not copy the model’s responses but simply behaves in a related manner. Self-referent thoughtA thought that pertains to the self. Self-referent thought concerns our own mental processes (for example, thoughts that evaluate ours abilities or monitor our progress in solving problems). Agentic perspectiveAn orientation, described by Bandura, that emphasizes the extent to which people are authors (agents) of their own actions (rather than simply experiencing that which happens to them) as is evident in their use intentionality, forethought, self-reactiveness, and self-reflectiveness. Collective efficacyThe belief members of a group share about their ability to influence events so as to attain common goals. Reciprocal determinismBandura’s notion that personal characteristics, behavior, and the environment all affect each other reciprocally–that individuals are both products and producers of their environments. Triadic reciprocal causationLabel used by Bandura to emphasize that the reciprocal interactions between person and environment also include the person’s behavior. All three influence and change each other. Time-outA procedure in which students are removed from situations in which they might ordinarily be rewarded. Time-out procedures are widely used in classroom management. Guided mastery therapyAn approach to therapy based largely on social/cognitive theory, where the therapist attempts to boost relevant feelings of self-efficacy. Widely used in the treatment of phobias.