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Biotechnology and reproductive rights

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Biotechnology and Reproductive Rights Biotechnology and Reproductive Rights Standardized ethical s assist individuals who are facing tough situations to make the best probable decision. The ethical codes of health exist since the choices that doctors, along with nurses, make are too complex for individuals to resolve personally (DuBois, 2008). A nurse whose personal codes clash with the rules of ethical health procedures must still adhere to the profession’s standardized ethics. A doctor can use his or her own judgment to balance the principles of ethical health care in the best way that suits the condition only in exceptional cases (CIMA, 2008). This paper will identify and evaluate the ethical principles used in resolving ethical dilemmas. It will apply the principles to ethical issues that may have professional, sociological, economic, legal or political implications. Finally, the paper will discuss when it is ethical for doctors to carry out an abortion for their patients. Some of the ethical principles that are used in resolving ethical dilemmas are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, double effect, confidentiality, as well as informed consent. The rule of autonomy identifies the right of persons to self-determination (DuBois, 2008). This principle is based on the society’s respect for people’s capability of making informed choices regarding private matters (CIMA, 2008). The principle of beneficence promotes the well being of other persons. In the health field, beneficence refers to taking actions that cater best for the interests of the patient. Nevertheless, ambiguity surrounds the precise meaning of which medical practice is, in reality, made to help patients. The principle of non-maleficence, on the other hand, is founded on the rule that doctors should first do no harm to and then protect the patient. According to doctors, this should be the main consideration. They should not harm the patient at any cost. The rule of double effect is a principal that combines non-maleficence and beneficence. This is mostly used in dying patients in order to save their lives. Informed consent refers to the thought that an individual has fully to be informed about the potential benefits and risks of the choice of treatment. Finally, the principle of confidentiality signifies that confidence of conversations between doctors and their respective patients (DuBois, 2008). Doctors focus more on ways of being an excellent practitioner and forget about the ethical issues that they are supposed to follow (White, 2010). In case a medical practitioner fails to follow the ethical laws and then the process that he or she implemented goes wrongly, he or she might be required to answer charges according to the law. Maybe the patient was not given full consent of the medical procedure that he or she would be given or maybe there confidentiality was breached by the doctor. In other cases, autonomy or beneficence was not applied in the medical procedure, and things went wrong for the doctor (White, 2010). Any of the above cases can have serious implications to the medical practitioner that was carrying out the procedure. Some might lose their job and, in addition to that be prosecuted, in a court of law. Furthermore, this make medical practice an extremely crucial career that many do not wish to take part (Karani, 2010). With the above findings, it is vital that people ask themselves just when it is essential for doctors perform an abortion to their patients (BBC, 2012). There are some unique cases where abortion should be carried out as well as there also are some cases where abortion could be avoided. A great number of jurisdictions do not allow abortion. However, the jurisdictions have some exceptional cases when doctors can approve abortion to pregnant women and avoid following ethical principles. Some of the cases follow below. Doctors can carry out an abortion in they establish that the pregnancy affects the health of the pregnant woman (BBC, 2012). Also, in case the pregnancy is as a result of rape or a forced sexual act. In some cases, a medical practitioner can establish that the unborn baby might be faced with life complications such as genetics problems, being handicapped and mental effects and, therefore, abortion is the paramount way of avoiding the issues. There are also social reasons that are associated with abortion such as poverty, the mother being not being able to look after the baby or if the mother cannot cope with another child. Also, in some country abortion could be conducted with an aim of restricting the country’s population (BBC, 2012). However, the sole reason that everyone agrees that abortion should be carried out it when the pregnancy affects that health of the mother. In conclusion, it is vital for medical practitioners as well as nurses to follow ethical principles when conducting the activities. However, it is also much better, at times, for practitioners to go out of line and not follow the principles when their sole aim is to protect their patients. A doctor knows best, and once they have completed a procedure is when they can explain when they evaded the ethical issues. References BBC. (2012). Ethics guide: When abortion is legal. Retrieved from http://www. bbc. co. uk/ethics/abortion/legal/when_1. shtml CIMA. (2008). Ethical dilemmas: What would you do? New York: Cima institute. DuBois, J. (2008). Ethics in mental health research. New York: Oxford University Press. Karani, N. (2010). Bioethics: Applying the basic principles to resolve an ethical dilemma. Retrieved from http://www. dcmsonline. org/jax-medicine/2008journals/ethics/bioethics_principles. pdf White, T. (2010). Resolving an ethical dilemma. Retrieved from http://www. asec-sldi. org/dotAsset/292830. pdf

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