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Research Paper, 2 pages (350 words)

A psychological perspective (lifespan: the early years (continued): parenting, peers and school)

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4. itative parents argue with their child and leave room for objections (Barkway 2009). They appreciate his ideas and reason with him due to which he also learns how to be assertive and present logic. This paper discusses the relationship between the authoritative parenting style and two stages of Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3 years) is the stage in which the child learns to gain control about his bodily functions and makes choices. For example, potty training and selection of clothes and toys makes him learn how to control his body and make choices which makes him confident. Authoritative parents discuss choices, options and decisions with their child (Lichtman 2011: 102) and let him know the pros and cons of, say, preferring one type of clothing to another. This makes him learn to make decisions through autonomy otherwise if a decision is forced on him, he enters shame and doubt. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6 years) is the stage in which children need motivation to initiate projects and play activities that help them build confident personalities, and the guilt or suppression can ruin their personalities for their entire lives. Authoritative parents encourage their children to bring forward creative and innovative ideas in their close supervision and motivate them to explore through learning (Swinney 2007: 9). This “ intrinsic motivation” (Benson & Haith 2009: 291) makes them initiate projects rather than entering into guilt of mistakes.
Hence, authoritative parents give their child autonomy through communication and reasoning with logic, and also encourage them to initiate and explore new ideas through intrinsic motivation and acceptance of mistakes.
References
Barkway, P 2009, Psychology for health professionals, Elsevier, Australia, p. 27-29.
Benson, J. B & Haith, M. M 2009, Social and Emotional Development in Infancy and Early Childhood, Academic Press, USA.
Lichtman, L. J 2011, A Practical Guide for Raising a Self-Directed and Caring Child: An Alternative to the Tiger Mother Parenting Style, iUniverse, USA.
Swinney, M 2007, Adolescents Perceptions of Parenting Styles in Social Context Among Low-Income African Americans, ProQuest, Illinois, USA.

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